Guaraní

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Guaraní

(gwäränē`), indigenous group living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the TupinambáTupinambá,
a people living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the Guaraní of Paraguay and adjacent portions of Brazil and Argentina.
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 on the Atlantic coast. The Guaraní language is currently spoken by some 6 million people in Paraguay (where it is widely spoken and an official language) and in adjacent portions of Argentina, Brazil, and Bolivia. At the time of the Spanish conquest (16th cent.), the Guaraní lived in settlements consisting of four to eight large communal dwellings, each of which accommodated 100 people or more. Chiefs resided patrilocally, but other men lived in their wives' houses and performed bride-service. They depended primarily on intensive agriculture supplemented by fishing, hunting, and gathering; the staple crops were corn and manioc. Men cleared fields that women tilled. Although their material culture was not advanced, Guaraní songs, dances, and myths constituted a rich body of folklore. Their religion was based on an impressive and elaborate mythology. The shaman was believed to possess supernatural powers that allowed him to ward off evil and cure sickness. The Guaraní survived initial contact with rapacious conquistadors because Paraguay lay apart from the main routes of Spanish trade and influence. Early Jesuit missionaries established the historically controversial system of reductionsreductions,
Span. reducciones, settlements of indigenous peoples in colonial Latin America, founded (beginning in 1609) to utilize efficiently native labor and to teach the natives the ways of Spanish life.
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, which (for a short time) protected them from the slave-trade, and hispanicized them. Surviving Guaraní continue to practice communal agriculture in some rural areas and Guaraní culture has had a strong influence on present-day Paraguayan musical folklore.

Guarani

 

a South American Indian language (spoken by the Caingua. Guayaqui, Apapocuva, Ivapare, Guayana, Chane, Chiriguano, and other tribes), which belongs to the Tupi-Guarani family of languages. Before the colonization of South America (16th century), it was spoken over the territory of what is now Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. The Guarani language forms the basis of the so-called common language (lingua geral), that to this day serves as a means of intertribal communication among the Indians of South America. It has been subjected to the influence of the Spanish and Portuguese languages since the 16th century. In Paraguay missionaries continued to use Guarani and compiled several dictionaries and grammars based on the Roman alphabet, thus contributing to the survival of the language. In present-day Paraguay, Spanish js the official state language, although Guarani is spoken by approximately 80 percent of the population, and newspapers and books are published in the language.

REFERENCES

Cornelsen. E. Lingua Guarani. Rio de Janeiro. 1937.
Ayrosa. P. “Apontamentos para a bibliografia da lingua Tupi-Guarani.” Universidade de Säo Paulo, bulletin no. 4. 1943.
Jover Peralta, A., and T. Osuna. Diccionario guaraní-español. Buenos Aires [1951].
References in periodicals archive ?
De acordo com estudos de Boaretto (5), ao realizar pesquisas em Terras Indigenas paranaenses, foram mapeadas 30 terras (terras demarcadas e nao demarcadas), sendo 17 pertencentes a etnia Guarani, 8 a Kaingang, 2 as etnias Guarani e Kaingang, 2 com as etnias Guarani, Kaingang e Xeta e 1 terra desabitada.
Recentemente, a Arqueologia de grupos Guarani tem sido objeto de um interesse renovado na Argentina gracas a escavacao de novos sitios, a re-localizacao de antigos sitios trabalhados por outros pesquisadores, assim como a implementacao de novas metodologias de estudo.
La creacion de la imprenta jesuitico-guarani es un caso excepcional en la historia del arte tipografico en America, pues no se trato ni de la importacion de una equipo ni del arribo de de impresores profesionales; sino que sacerdotes jesuitas instalados en una reduccion en plena selva subtropical, apremiados por la necesidad cada vez mayor de contar con la valiosa herramienta de material impreso para el trabajo misionero y contando con dos obras traducidas por Serrano al guarani (la Diferencia entre lo temporal y eterno de Nieremberg y el Flos Sanctorum de Ribadeneyra), (9) listas para la impresion y con el deseo expreso de las autoridades de la Orden de que se las publicara, crearon juntamente con los guaranies una imprenta con los pocos recursos materiales a su disposicion.
Para isso, recorremos as informacoes proporcionadas por atuais falantes tanto de guarani como de nheengatu, bem como aos instrumentos classicos de traducao em ambas as linguas: vocabularios, glossarios, dicionarios e listagens de palavras.
En primer lugar, cabe senalar que el Idioma Guarani--hablado desde el Caribe hasta el sur del rio de la Plata--esta considerado por muchos estudiosos como uno de los mas evolucionados, pues tiene tal riqueza y fluidez que solo comprendiendo su mecanismo intimo podemos apreciarlo en toda su dimension: el idioma guarani es principalmente onomatopeyico y mantiene un dialogo con la Naturaleza en un tono intimo, y ademas expresa el Universo desde su dimension animista.
While students acknowledged their own wish and need to denounce the colonial-era violence, they also felt cheated by the silencing of Guarani viewpoints.
The object of this study is to reexamine the economic organization of the Guarani missions.
et semble avoir entraine des problemes pour les forets tropicales, car les groupes horticulteurs amazoniens tupis ont migre vers le littoral atlantique, alors que les guaranis commencent a migrer vers le Rio de la Plata.
Since [longtime dictator Alfredo] Stroessner fell in 1989, there's been a boom in Guarani literature," says Mario Bogado, who operates a Guarani website and a bookstore in Asuncion.
This article presents an archaeological model for the Guarani occupation of the southern coastal plains of Santa Catarina, specifically the area that surrounds the small town of Jaguaruna.
Com relacao aos grupos Guarani, que ocuparam grandes areas da regiao sul, o exame do mapa de distribuicao desta subtradicao mostra de modo geral a busca compativel com a sua origem e modo de vida, buscando sempre os lugares de vegetacao de bosque subtropical chuvoso.