Figure 1 presents voltage-controllable guided propagation in a nematic liquid crystals coupler.
Guided propagation, self-focusing, and the coupling effect are discussed in three different situations: guided light propagation (I) in a single channel, (II) in two channels by applying equal external voltages in each of the two electrode stripes, and (III) in two channels by applying the different external voltages in each of the two electrode stripes.
Caption: Figure 1: Experimental setup of voltage-controllable guided propagation in a nematic liquid crystals coupler.
Based on the experiments performed in the same farm during several weeks, it has been noticed that the main plantation aisles favor the guided propagation. On the other hand, there was a considerable amount of vegetation along the secondary plantation aisles which compromised the propagation.
From the curves and RMSE values, it seems that the geometry of the plantation favors the guided propagation of the wave.
The topics include late Han vernacular elements in the earliest Buddhist translations, the impact of Buddhism on Chinese culture in an historical perspective, the spread of Buddhism and Christianity in imperial China as spontaneous diffusion verses guided propagation
, the ecclesiastical view of Buddhist art in medieval China, and tidings from the South China court Buddhism and overseas relations in the fifth century CE.
The parameters utilized to characterize the properties of wave guided propagation
are phase velocity and group velocity, which have been described above.
The region before the break point is the near region, where high order modes are significant; guided propagation
has not been well established, and therefore, the signal suffers higher loss.
This iterative process is based on the guided propagation conditions: [n.sub.f] > [n.sub.eff] > ns and it is applied as follows:
First guided propagation condition ([n.sub.f] > [n.sub.eff])
Using clear, concise text and dozens of real-world application examples, this book/CD-ROM package enables undergraduate and graduate students to quickly and easily work out challenging microwave engineering and high-frequency electromagnetic problems using the finite element method (FEM), and provides the code and tools needed to solve the three major types of EM problems: guided propagation
, scattering, and radiation.