Gummosis


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gummosis

[‚gə′mō·səs]
(plant pathology)
Production of gummy exudates in diseased plants as a result of cell degeneration.

Gummosis

 

a disease predominantly of arboreal plants (such as stone-fruit crops, citrus, and mulberry) and more rarely herbaceous plants (such as cotton and sesame). The disease is characterized by the exudation of gum, a viscous, sticky amber-yellow or brown liquid that forms in the cells of the bark and lignin as a result of the dissolving of the cell membranes.

Gummosis is caused by poor cultivation conditions, injuries, frost crack, and damage by insects and microorganisms. The most harm is caused by cotton gummosis, which is encountered in all cotton-growing regions. This disease infests the aboveground organs and is accompanied by the appearance of grayish oily spots covered by gum. It is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas malvacearum. The sources of infection include contaminated seeds and plant remains. Heavily infested shoots die, the leaves and fruiting elements turn yellow, dry out, and drop off, the stems become thin and crack, and the bolls rot.

The measures for combating cotton gummosis include the preparation of healthy seed stock, destruction of the post-harvest residues, late autumn plowing, and the disinfection of seeds. The measures for combating gummosis in stone-fruit trees are chiefly preventive and include correct farming practices, protection against sunscald and frost cracks, and correct pruning of the trees. For citrus, the measures include good soil drainage, spraying with Bordeaux mixture, and treatment of wounds.

REFERENCES

Babaian, A. A. Gommoz khlopchatnika. Yerevan, 1963.
Slovar’-spravochnikfitopatologa, 2nd ed. Edited by P. N. Golovin. Leningrad, 1967.

A. A. BABAIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Lasiodiplodia theobromae a member of Botryosphaeriaceae family is mainly involved in citrus gummosis development whereas other genera of Botryosphaeriacea (Diplodia, Dothiorella, Neofusicoccum, Neoscytalidium) are also reported to be associated with citrus gummosis (Polizzi et al., 2011; Adesemoye et al., 2014).
All the chemicals were sprayed after physical removal of gummosis present and thus exposing the already present exit holes to penetration by the insecticides.
The tree looks or appears normal and suddenly starts to wilt and within a couple of days is completely wilted and dies observance of tree trunk and main branches reveal gummosis of different colors, forms and intensities coming out at different positions on the tree.
Frequent outbreaks of citrus gummosis in Kenyan citrus orchards have been reported, yet the identity and distribution of the Phytophthora species causing the disease are unknown.
Ploetz et al, (1997) observed the symptoms of decline, tip dieback and gummosis from mango nurseries artificially inoculated with Alternaria altemata, Glomerella cingulata, Dothiorella dominicana, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis sp.
Gummosis causes blisters on the bark of young peach trees in the third year after planting.
It is the causal agent of gummosis of branches and trunks of citrus (Fawcett, 1936; Cedeno and Pru, 1992), mango (Narasimhudu and Reddy, 1992; Khanzada et al., 2004; Al Adawi et al., 2006), cashew (Cardoso et al., 2006) and neem (Khalil, 2010).
Many additional fungi have been associated with symptomatic tissues exhibiting bud necrosis, tip die-back, gummosis and vascular discoloration including: Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Dothiorella dominicana, Fusarium spp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium sp., Pestalotiopsis sp.
Some of the acid limes (3.0%) and sweet limes (3.5%) were also found to suffer from gummosis at the trunk base.
The tree infected with MQD shows the symptoms of gummosis, canker formation, bark splitting, drying of twigs, branches and curling of leaves (Masood et al.