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soft tissues that cover the alveolar edge of the jaws from the necks of the teeth to the transitional fold of the lips anteriorly (from the side of the vestibule of the mouth cavity). Posteriorly, the gums become the mucous membrane of the palate (from the upper jaw) and of the bottom of the mouth cavity (from the lower jaw). The gums consist of a dense connective-tissue base, rich in blood vessels, knit to the periosteum and covered with epithelium. In the interdental spaces, they form the so-called interdental papillae. The free edge of the gums protrudes somewhat over the place of their attachment to the teeth, forming so-called gingival pockets 1-2 mm deep.
the macromolecular carbohydrates that are the basic constituents of the plant exudates produced by disease or mechanical damage to the cortex.
Gums are polymers of monosaccharides, such as glucose, galactose, arabinose (pectinose), rhamnose, and glucuronic acid, that either dissolve or swell in water. Also included in the category are certain polysaccharides of microorganisms (in particular, those accumulated in culture fluids) and derivatives obtained by the modification of natural polysaccharides, such as cellulose and starch.
Gums are used in the food and paper industries as adhesives, stabilizing agents in emulsions and suspensions, and high-vis-cosity solutions. In medicine they serve as mucilage, whichreduces the irritation caused by certain medicinal substances andlowers absorption. They are also used in the preparation of pillsand emulsions. Gum arabic, agar-agar, dextrans, alginic acids, and guaran are among the gums that have found a broad rangeof uses.