psoriasis

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psoriasis

(sôrī`əsĭs), occasionally acute but usually chronic and recurrent inflammation of the skin. The exact cause is unknown, but the disease appears to be an inherited, possibly autoimmune disorder that causes the overproduction of skin cells. Psoriasis may occur at any age but is uncommon in children. The characteristic lesion is a scaly "mother-of-pearl" patch, appearing anywhere on the body. Involvement may range from a single plaque to numerous patches that cover most of the skin. A variety of treatments are used for patients with mild to moderate cases. Treatments directed at the symptoms include the application of ointments and exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet (UVB) light. Retinoids help stabilize follicular epithelial cells. Vitamin D analogs and metabolites, although effective in treatment, have side effects. Photochemotherapy (psoralen combined with UVA radiation) is also effective, but increases the risk of skin cancer. Alfacept and other drugs that interfere with T-cell (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) activation, and etanercept, infliximab, and other drugs that block tumor-necrosis factor are effective in many patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

Psoriasis

 

a chronic recurrent noncontagious skin disease of man. Neuropsychic traumas and metabolic and endocrine disorders play a part in the development of psoriasis. The disease may also be viral or genetic in nature.

Eruptions may appear anywhere on the skin but generally occur on the elbows, knees, sacral region, and scalp. The disease becomes acute with the appearance of small pink-red papules covered with silvery scales that readily slough off. When the papules are scraped, the scales fall off in small particles, revealing a smooth shiny surface underneath. Further scraping produces small drops of blood. The papules rapidly enlarge, often coalescing to form plaques. This process may be circumscribed, disseminated, or generalized (erythroderma psoriaticum). When the papules and plaques reach a certain size, they stop growing and then harden, shrink, and disappear, leaving depigmented or hyperpigmented spots.

There are thus three stages of psoriasis: progressive (appearance and growth of papules), stationary (stable), and regressive (hardening and disappearance of papules). Sometimes the nail plates are affected, and their surface becomes thimble-like. In some patients, the eruptions are accompanied by swelling and tenderness of the joints (psoriasis anthropathica).

Treatment is effected by administering vitamins A, B1, B6, and B12, tranquilizers, and hormones, by means of ultraviolet radiation and application of paraffin and desquamative and resorbing ointments, and by health-resort therapy.

REFERENCE

Mashkilleison, L. N. Chastnaia dermatologiia. Moscow, 1965. Pages 161–216.

I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER

psoriasis

[sə′rī·ə·səs]
(medicine)
A usually chronic, often acute inflammatory skin disease of unknown cause; characterized by dull red, well-defined lesions covered by silvery scales which when removed disclose tiny capillary bleeding points.

psoriasis

a skin disease characterized by the formation of reddish spots and patches covered with silvery scales: tends to run in families
References in periodicals archive ?
(5) When the rash was visualized 3.5 weeks later, it displayed the classic clinical findings of guttate psoriasis. The rash presented approximately 2.5 weeks after the diagnosis of strep throat and had the characteristic distribution to the trunk and extremities and the classic tear drop appearance.
The characteristic skin lesions of guttate psoriasis are less than 1 cm in diameter, hence the name guttate (drop like).
Genetic analysis of PSORS1 distinguishes guttate psoriasis and palmoplantar pustulosis.
Most commonly, psoriasis presents as chronic, bilaterally symmetrical, well defined, erythematous, dry, red, scaly papules and plaques, Apart from this, there are several unique cutaneous manifestations, ranging from small papules (guttate psoriasis) to pustules (pustular psoriasis) and generalized erythema and scaling (erythrodermic psoriasis).
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of N-3 fatty acid based lipid infusion in acute, extended guttate psoriasis. Clin Invest.
Out of 40 patients of psoriasis, the different morphological variants included were plaque psoriasis 25(62.5%), guttate psoriasis 5(12.5%), hypertrophic psoriasis 5(12.5%), palmar psoriasis 3(7.5%), palmoplantar psoriasis 1(2.5%), and plantar psoriasis 1 (2.5%).
In guttate psoriasis, small raindrop appearing lesions grow on the trunk, limbs even scalp after an upper respiratory infection like a sore throat.
Carrel, "Family history of psoriasis, stressful life events, and recent infectious disease are risk factors for a first episode of acute guttate psoriasis: results of a case-control study," Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol.
Other types of the condition include scalp and nail psoriasis, inverse psoriasis which appears in areas of the body where skin 'creases' and also guttate psoriasis, which can be brought on in the aftermath of a streptococcal throat infection.
We diagnosed guttate psoriasis in this patient based on her history and physical exam, a throat culture that was positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and blood work that showed an elevated antistreptolysin O titer.