We believe that the clear separation of unispicate dioecious, paradioecious (see Starr et al., 2004) and gynaecandrous
species (e.g., Carex squarrosa, Carex exilis, often unispicate; Ford et al., 2006; Waterway & Starr, 2007; present analyses) from androgynous unispicate taxa in all molecular analyses may signal a fundamental difference in inflorescence development between the Core Carex and Vignea Clades and the Core Unispicate and Schoenoxiphium Clades.
Perigynia coriaceous; lateral spikes (with perigynia) gynaecandrous, up to 12 cm long 2 1.
Spikes 7-11, upper 2-6 (most often 4) staminate and strongly overlapping, the remaining lateral ones gynaecandrous and well separated.
Also, the lateral gynaecandrous spikes of the former are generally well separated, whereas in the latter species the upper lateral spikes overlap to some degree.
Spikes 5-7 (-8), the terminal gynaecandrous or staminate (and sometimes accompanied by a much smaller secondary staminate spike), lateral ones gynaecandrous.