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Abnormal enlargement of the mammary glands in the male.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



excessive unilateral or bilateral enlargement of the mammary glands in males, so that they sometimes resemble female glands. Temporary, mild gynecomastia often occurs in adolescent males. Pronounced gynecomastia is one of the symptoms of primary diseases of the endocrine glands, especially the gonads. Patients develop secondary female sex characteristics (feminine pelvis, hips, and voice), lose facial hair, and suffer sexual disturbances. Gynecomastia can also develop in cases of liver diseases (cirrhosis), because of disturbances in estrogen metabolism. Treatment involves elimination of the main disease and sometimes surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Also, 27(26%) subjects presented with gynecomastia, 92(88.5%) with micropenis, 71(68%) with undescended testes, and 7(6.7%) presented with hypospadias.
Thoracic CT scans were reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of gynecomastia. The presence of gynecomastia was consensually determined based on visual assessments of both breasts on the CT scans.
The found high prevalence is in accordance to the published data from an autoptic case series by Glassmann, in this study gynecomastia was found in 40% of examined patients (3).
Gynecomastia usually resolves without treatment or by addressing the underlying cause.
The breasts in this case tend to sag a little bit more than true gynecomastia.
* Gynecomastia results from a hormone imbalance with a relative excess ofestrogens.
Gynecomastia results from an impaired balance between free estrogen and androgen action in breast tissue with relatively elevated estrogen due to hormonal alterations on multiple levels: (1) decreased androgen production resulting from primary or secondary hypogonadism, (2) increased estrogen production from intra- or extragonadal germ cell, gastric or renal cell, or adrenal or large-cell lung tumors, or (3) increase of aromatase activity leading to higher conversion from testosterone to estradiol due to thyrotoxicosis, Klinefelter syndrome, aging, or increased body fat [4].
Its occurrence in premenopausal and peripubertal periods and in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy with the use of oral contraceptives and its development with gynecomastia in male breasts support this claim.
Among benign breast diseases, most of the patients 115 (72.78%) were diagnosed of gynecomastia followed by 4 (2.53%) fibroadenoma, 10 (6.32%) inflammation/mastitis, and 2 (1.26%) epidermal cyst (Figures 1a-d).
In males, the main symptom is gynecomastia, which may or may not be associated with other hypogonadism features.
He had bilateral gynecomastia. Testis volume measured with orchidometer was 20 mL.
(4,5) Common side effects of AAS are hypogonadism, gynecomastia, decreased sperm count and infertility, acne, and aggressiveness.