Floral ontogeny in Ficinia and Isolepis (Cyperaccae), with focus on the nature and origin of the gynophore. Annals of Botany 96: 1247-1264.
Achene/spikelet as intact unit Kyllinga spikelet as intact unit Kyllingiella Achene Lipocarpha spikelet as intact unit Oxycaryum Ashen Pycreus Achene Queenslandiella Spikelet as intact unit Remirea Spikelet as intact unit Sphaerocyperus spikelet as intact unit Volkiella spikelet as intact unit Ficinia Clade Dracoscirpoides Achene Erioscirpus Achene with perianth hairs Ficinia Achene Hellmuthia Achene Isolepis Achene Scirpoides Achene (a) Only few species (b) In Dracoscirpoides falsa Table 2 Main flower characters in Cypereae Taxon Perianth Gynophore Cyperus Clade Alinula Absent Absent (b) Androtrichum Absent Absent Ascolepis Absent Absent Courtoisina Absent Absent Cyperus s.s.
The hypogynous stalk together with the cupule was called "gynophore
" by Haines and Lye (1983).
The individual genera are diagnosed by a combination of several characters (Table 2), the most notable being the presence of a gynophore and ligule in Ficinia (including Desmoschoenus), presence of two or three scales in the lower florets in Hellmuthia, and perennial growth form and spiral glume arrangement in Scirpoides, whereas Isolepis includes predominantly annual species with a spiral glume arrangement.
An annual species with rudimentary gynophore described as Isolepis (I.
At flowering, small perforations were made in this covering to facilitate the entry of the developing gynophores into the pod production zone.
These included time to first flower appearance, number of flowers, and number of gynophores produced.