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common name for the Ulmaceae, a family of trees and shrubs chiefly of the Northern Hemisphere. Elm trees (genus Ulmus) have a limited use as hardwoods for timber, especially the rock or cork elm (U. thomasi).
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(Celtis), a genus of deciduous or more rarely evergreen trees of the family Ulmaceae. The leaves are asymmetrical and serrated, with three veins at the base. The blossoms are opaque and polygamous, with a simple five-membered perianth. The fruit is a drupe. There are about 50 species in tropical and arid regions of the temperate zones in the western and eastern hemispheres. In the USSR there are two species. Caucasian hackberry (C. caucasicd) is a tree up to 20 m tall with grayish green downy leaves that grows in the Caucasus and Middle Asia. Smooth hackberry (C. glabratd) is 4– m tall and grows on dry rocky slopes of the Crimea and Caucasus.
Hackberry is widely used for greenery and for protective for-estation, especially in arid regions. The fruit is edible; the leavesare used for animal fodder and the bark in tanning hides. Thewood is hard and durable; it is used in cabinetry, woodworking, and carving.
I. A. GRUDZINSKAIA