hemorrhagic fever

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hemorrhagic fever

(hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood. Bleeding occurs in the form of leakage from capillaries in the internal organs and the skin and mucous membranes. The causative viruses may be transmitted to humans by insects, ticks, or rodents, but in the case of the African hemorrhagic fevers caused by Ebola virus and Marburg virus the animal carrier is unknown. In addition to Ebola and Marburg, well-known hemorrhagic fevers include hantavirushantavirus,
any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA viruses that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus.
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, Lassa feverLassa fever
, an acute viral disease occurring mostly in W Africa, characterized by high fever, muscle aches, mouth ulcers, and bleeding in the skin in more severe cases. The disease was first recognized in Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969.
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, yellow feveryellow fever,
acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South and Central America. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations.
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, and a severe form of dengue called dengue hemorrhagic fever (see dengue feverdengue fever
, acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.
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; see also Ebola virusEbola virus
, a virus of the genus Ebolavirus, which belongs to a family (Filoviridae) of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The viruses, named for the region in Congo (Kinshasa) where the first species was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain
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).

Ebola and Marburg are closely related, newly emergent viruses that have in recent years caused epidemics in central Africa, with very high rates of mortality. Hantavirus occurs in many different parts of the world and is spread to humans from field rodents via microscopic bits of their excretions that get into the air and are inhaled. It was originally known as a disease of Asia and Europe that primarily attacked the kidneys, but a more deadly pulmonary form of hantavirus infection has more recently caused numerous fatalities in the United States, Chile, and other countries. Lassa fever, also spread to humans from rodent excretions, occurs primarily in W Africa. Closely related to the Lassa virus are the Junin and Machupo viruses, which have caused outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in South America. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, which is found primarily in Africa, SW and central Asia, and SE Europe, and Rift Valley fever, which can result in hemorrhagic fever in humans and is found in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, are typically transmitted to humans from livestock by ticks or mosquitoes respectively or by contact with fluids or tissues from infected animals. Yellow fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, still occurs in tropical areas despite largely successful control efforts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also spread by mosquitoes, has in recent years caused many fatalities among children in tropical countries.

There is usually no specific treatment to combat the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. One exception is the drug ribavirin, which has been effective in treating Lassa fever and has also been used to treat a form of hantavirus infection and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Treatment generally consists of such supportive measures as the replacement of lost blood, the maintainence of fluid balance, and the alleviation of symptoms. Survival depends largely upon the virulence of the virus strain and the quality of treatment. An experimental vaccine for Ebola was developed and used in a limited manner against the strain that caused the 2013–15 West African outbreak, but its long-term effectiveness is unclear.

Bibliography

See R. Reston, The Hot Zone (1994).

References in periodicals archive ?
[29] The differential diagnosis of CCHF is extensive and in the SA context could include, but is not limited to, bacterial septicaemia (with or without HIV infection), rickettsiosis, Q fever, listeriosis, infection with hepatitis viruses, brucellosis, malaria, meningococcaemia, and if the patient has a compatible travel history, other haemorrhagic fever viruses.
Isolation of Marburg-like virus from a case of haemorrhagic fever in Zaire.
This disease was first recognized in the Crimean region of former Soviet Union in 1944 after Russian soldiers fell ill of a tick borne haemorrhagic fever. Same and similar disease was then found in different regions of the world, however, the causative agent, that is the Congo virus was not discovered till 1969 and was found identical to a virus identified in Belgian Congo, therefore in 1970 it was proposed that this disease should be called Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever- Congo Virus and was further simplified to Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever latter.
"We have kept the patient in isolation ward and put him under the category of Viral Haemorrhagic Fever. Basic tests will confirm with which virus he is actually suffering from fever," he informed.
Evalution of PCR and ELISA-IgM results in the laboratory diagnosis of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever cases in 2008 in Turkey.
Muscat: Oman's Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries has raised the level of preventive measures to limit the spread of the Crimean - Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in some livestock farms.
The visit comes two days after the denial by federal health ministry of haemorrhagic fever outbreak.
Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Media centre Fact sheet N117; March 2009.
As per WHO criteria dengue haemorrhagic fever defined as an acute febrile illness with minor or major bleeding, thermocytopenia, evidence of plasma leakage patients improved with fluids.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Africa, the middle East, Asia and some parts of Europe (1).