hemorrhagic fever

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hemorrhagic fever

(hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood. Bleeding occurs in the form of leakage from capillaries in the internal organs and the skin and mucous membranes. The causative viruses may be transmitted to humans by insects, ticks, or rodents, but in the case of the African hemorrhagic fevers, Ebola and Marburg, the animal carrier is unknown. In addition to Ebola and Marburg, well-known hemorrhagic fevers include hantavirushantavirus,
any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA viruses that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus.
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, Lassa feverLassa fever
, an acute viral disease occurring mostly in W Africa, characterized by high fever, muscle aches, mouth ulcers, and bleeding in the skin in more severe cases. The disease was first recognized in Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969.
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, yellow feveryellow fever,
acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South and Central America. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations.
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, and a severe form of dengue called dengue hemorrhagic fever (see dengue feverdengue fever
, acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.
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; see also Ebola virusEbola virus
, a member of a family (Filovidae) of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The virus, named for the region in Congo (Kinshasa) where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain forest, where it survives in as yet unconfirmed hosts, possibly
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).

Ebola and Marburg are closely related, newly emergent viruses that have in recent years caused epidemics in central Africa, with very high rates of mortality. Hantavirus occurs in many different parts of the world and is spread to humans from field rodents via microscopic bits of their excretions that get into the air and are inhaled. It was originally known as a disease of Asia and Europe that primarily attacked the kidneys, but a more deadly pulmonary form of hantavirus infection has more recently caused numerous fatalities in the United States, Chile, and other countries. Lassa fever, also spread to humans from rodent excretions, occurs primarily in W Africa. Closely related to the Lassa virus are the Junin and Machupo viruses, which have caused outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in South America. Yellow fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, still occurs in tropical areas despite largely successful control efforts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also spread by mosquitoes, has in recent years caused many fatalities among children in tropical countries.

There is usually no specific treatment to combat the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. One exception is the drug ribavirin, which has been effective in treating Lassa fever and has also been used to treat a form of hantavirus infection and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Treatment generally consists of such supportive measures as the replacement of lost blood, the maintainence of fluid balance, and the alleviation of symptoms. Survival depends largely upon the virulence of the virus strain and the quality of treatment. An experimental vaccine for Ebola was developed and used in a limited manner against the strain that caused the 2013–15 West African outbreak, but its long-term effectiveness is unclear.

Bibliography

See R. Reston, The Hot Zone (1994).

References in periodicals archive ?
Same and similar disease was then found in different regions of the world, however, the causative agent, that is the Congo virus was not discovered till 1969 and was found identical to a virus identified in Belgian Congo, therefore in 1970 it was proposed that this disease should be called Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever- Congo Virus and was further simplified to Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever latter.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has claimed eight lives in 2016 so far, according to the Ministry of Health.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Middle Anatolia: a multicentre study of clinical features and outcome measures.
Crimean - Congo Haemorrhagic Fever has claimed five lives in 2016 so far.
The visit comes two days after the denial by federal health ministry of haemorrhagic fever outbreak.
Strengthening implementation of the global strategy for dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever prevention and control, report on the informal consultation.
The diagnosis of Dengue Fever, Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome was based on clinical ground.
Serum was then separated and transferred into holding tubes and sent to the Arboviruses and Viral Haemorrhagic Fever Laboratory (National Reference Laboratory) and stored at -70 [degrees]C until further analysis.
A survey of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in livestock and ticks in Ardabil Province, Iran during 2004-2005.
Analysis of risk- factors among patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection: severity criteria revisited.
The death is the first laboratory confirmed case of Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever in the UK, the Health Protection Agency said.
In 1969, it was recognised that the virus causing Crimean haemorrhagic fever was the same as that responsible for an illness identified in 1956 in Congo.