halakah


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Related to halakah: Halachic

halakah

or

halacha

(both: hälä`khä, häläkhä`) [Heb.,=law], in Judaism, the body of law regulating all aspects of life, including religious ritual, familial and personal status, civil relations, criminal law, and relations with non-Jews. Halakah is the term used to designate both a particular ordinance and the law in the abstract. The adjective halakic means "of a legal nature." The plural, halakoth, designates a collection of laws. It usually refers to the Oral Law as codified in the MishnaMishna
, in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the Talmud.
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 and, in particular, to those statements of law that appear in categorical form without immediate regard for scriptural derivation. The most authoritative codifications of these laws are the Mishneh Torah of MaimonidesMaimonides
or Moses ben Maimon
, 1135–1204, Jewish scholar, physician, and philosopher, the most influential Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages, b. Córdoba, Spain, d. Cairo.
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 and the Shulhan Arukh [the set table] by Joseph CaroCaro or Karo, Joseph ben Ephraim
, 1488–1575, eminent Jewish codifier of law, b. Toledo, Spain. He left Spain as a child when the Jews were expelled (1492) and finally settled in Safed, Palestine.
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. Halakah was the important unifying force in world Jewry until modern times, when its authority was challenged by religious reform and secular conceptions of a Jewish nation. Contemporary problems in halakah revolve around its application to technological change, especially in relation to medical issues and Sabbath observance. Halakah is contrasted with aggada (plural aggadoth), the literary, aesthetic elements in the Oral Law and in the Talmud, and MidrashMidrash
[Heb.,=to examine, to investigate], verse by verse interpretation of Hebrew Scriptures, consisting of homily and exegesis, by Jewish teachers since about 400 B.C.
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 generally, which elaborates scriptural meaning through legends, tales, parables, and allegories. Both the halakic and aggadic elements have been extracted and made the subject of commentary.
References in periodicals archive ?
Berkovits was attacked for advocating a form of halakah that was more Conservative than Orthodox.
At the same time, Berkovits claims that such judgment is not "purely subjective" as it is guided by the overarching ethos of Jewish law that the student of halakah internalizes as a result of his immersion in the Jewish textual tradition.
Fletcher's radical placement of responsibility in the hands of subjective, individualized, non-code-governed ethics (24) introduces the personal and unique into decision making, precisely the element whose absence Berkovits elsewhere laments--not only in his writing about science (as we have seen), but in writing about halakah as well.
Halakah had developed Gentile lands, where Jews were minorities.
Many modern Jews might have difficulty regarding traditional Jewish life, life according to the halakah, as an intense drama.
This is an intra-debate about halakah, the path one walks, or "to walk after the customs" (21:21).
(3.) Most fully expounded in Chaim Tchernowitz, Toledot Ha-Halakah, or History of the Halakah: The Transmission and Development of the Oral Law from it's Inception to the Completion of the Talmud, 4 vols.
"When our forces come across civilians during a war or in hot pursuit or in a raid, so long as there is no certainty that those civilians are incapable of harming our forces, then according to Halakah [Jewish law] they may and even should be killed....
"Halakah and Custom in the Ketubah Nowadays." Pp.50-59 in Ta-Shma Itzhak and Israel Gilat (Eds.).
The halakah of Jesus of Nazareth according to the Gospel of Matthew.
En las fuentes del judaismo palestino y en el alejandrino es algo conocido que la misma cita, que en la fuente original se refiere no a la pena capital de la crucifixion sino a la exposicion de los cadaveres para escarnio publico, asume el caracter de una halakah de tipo normativo.
(81) In contrast, note here that Jewish Law (Halakah) rests upon the twin principles of the sovereignty of God and the absolute sacredness of the Individual.