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(dŭl`sĭmər), stringed musical instrument. It is a wooden box with strings stretched over it that are struck with small mallets. The number of strings may vary. The dulcimer is related to the psalterypsaltery
, stringed musical instrument. It has a flat soundboard over which a variable number of strings are stretched. Its origin was in the Middle East, and it is referred to in the Bible. It appeared in Europe in the 12th cent. and flourished until the late Middle Ages.
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 and modern zitherzither
, stringed musical instrument, derived from the psaltery and the dulcimer. It has a flat sound box over which are stretched from 30 to 45 strings; these are plucked with the fingers and a plectrum. In the 18th cent.
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. It originated in the Middle East and was adopted in Europe in the Middle Ages. It is known, in varying forms, in Turkey, Iran, China (including Tibet), and other parts of Asia, the Middle East, and N Africa. The popularity of the dulcimer continued in Western Europe until the 17th cent., when it sharply declined, though a German, Pantaleon Hebenstreit, enlarged it to make an instrument called the pantaleon in the early 18th cent. It is still much used in Eastern Europe in Romani (Gypsy) bands. In Appalachia a plucked dulcimer very similar to the zither is popular. It has an elongated hourglass shape and is held on the player's lap.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a hammered stringed instrument. The dulcimer consists of a flat wooden body in the shape of a trapezoid, with strings stretched over the upper soundboard. The sound is produced by striking two wooden sticks or hammers against two to five metal strings. The instrument’s range extends from E in the bass clef to E in the third octave.

An ancient instrument, the dulcimer is depicted on ancient Assyrian monuments. It has been known in Western Europe since the 18th century; it achieved its greatest popularity in Hungary and Slovakia. The Moldavian (ţambal, the Armenian and Georgian santir and tsintsila, and the Uzbek chang are all related to the dulcimer. The chromatic dulcimers developed in the late 19th century by the Hungarian master craftsman V. Schunda formed an instrument family by adding an alto, bass, and contrabass dulcimer to the original dulcimer; such dulcimers are used in folk orchestras. In 17th-century Russia the harpsichord was called a dulcimer.

I. F. Stravinsky included a dulcimer part in The Fox and Ragtime for 11 instruments.


Modr. A. Muzykul’nye instrumenty. Moscow, 1959. Pages 80–82.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a tuned percussion instrument consisting of a set of strings of graduated length stretched over a sounding board and struck with a pair of hammers
2. an instrument used in US folk music, consisting of an elliptical body, a fretted fingerboard, and usually three strings plucked with a goose quill
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The first was the seminal 1978 Jewish Klezmer Music album with Feldman (now on a Romanian tsimbl, the East European version of the hammered dulcimer).
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Phil Passen will perform a hammered dulcimer concert of songs about women's suffrage from as the mid-19th century through 1920, as well as songs from the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries about equal job opportunity, equal work for equal pay, and other relevant topics.
Tristan and Tashina Clarridge, well known by those steeped in the American fiddle tradition, are joined on stage by hammered dulcimer virtuoso Simon Chrisman.
The guest this time is Harjinderpal Singh Matharu and the enchanting sounds of his santoor (hammered dulcimer) playing is a revelation.
A hypnotic hammered dulcimer melody and sampled Buddhist monk chants set a meditative tone, while electronic glitches, break beats, and skittering 32nd-note high-hat patterns convey vitality and motion.
It was a beautiful spring day in Chinatown when I stopped by the Mencius Society to talk with Xiao Xiannian, a virtuoso of the Chinese hammered dulcimer known as theyangqin.
Brody, he began touring with her around the country, taking up the concertina and hammered dulcimer and has opened his own recording studio.
Maggie Sanson is a world class hammered dulcimer player who in addition to faithfully rendering traditional music, is able to combine ancient instruments with contemporary instruments to produce music that is as engaging as it is memorable.
Geoff Smith, the wizard of the hammered dulcimer, returns to the region at the end of the month for his latest virtuoso performance of film accompaniment.