hantavirus


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Related to hantavirus: Ebola, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

hantavirus,

any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA virusesvirus,
parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid within a protein coat. Most viruses are too small (100–2,000 Angstrom units) to be seen with the light microscope and thus must be studied by electron microscopes.
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 that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus. The first to be isolated (1976) was the Hantaan virus (from the Han River in South Korea, which also gives the species its name). Hantaan virus and its related strains, Seoul virus and Puulmala virus, cause Korean hemorrhagic fever (more correctly, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome), a condition in which the capillaries of the circulatory system begin to leak blood. Although some people with the disease are nearly asymptomatic, in others it can lead to shock, acute kidney failure, and, in 10% of cases, death.

A second disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was identified in the United States in 1993 and is caused by at least three strains of the virus. It is known to be carried by deer mice, white-footed mice, and cotton rats. This disease is much more deadly, causing flulike symptoms that can lead to fluid accumulation in the lungs and death. One of the pulmonary strains, the Sin Nombre virus (named for a Spanish massacre of Native Americans that occurred in the canyon where it was discovered), was the cause of a 1993 outbreak in the Four Corners area of the SW United States that killed 32 of 53 people known to have been infected. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurs sporadically in North America, with roughly one third of those known to be infected dying from the disease. Outbreaks of a hantavirus strain that apparently can be spread from person to person occurred in South America in 1996 and 1997. There is no vaccination for pulmonary hantavirus. Treatment includes respiratory and hemodynamic support; the antiviral drug ribavirin has been effective in some cases.

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Hantavirus is contracted through contact with rodent urine and feces or rodent bites.
"Although hantavirus is extremely rare, when it does occur, the disease can be fatal," said Dr.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe respiratory illness caused by infection with New World hantaviruses (4).
Hantavirus infections cause a severe febrile disease termed hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, which leads to death in up to 40% of otherwise healthy individuals.
It added that hantaviruses are typically transmitted from rodent-to-person, however there is evidence that at least one strain, Andes hantavirus, is able to spread person-to-person.
To avoid exposure to hantavirus, be aware of mouse droppings and nesting materials and take the following precautions when cleaning infested areas:
'Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome can worsen suddenly and may quickly become life-threatening if not treated once it is noticeable,' he said.
Contacts who developed symptoms were tested for hantavirus by RT-PCR and serology by CDC's Viral Special Pathogens Branch.
According to a report in (https://www.cbsnews.com/news/new-mexico-woman-dies-of-hantavirus-illness-spread-by-rodents/) CBS News , more than 728 cases of Hantavirus were reported in the United States as of January 2017, across 36 states, with a majority of them being reported in Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico, where the deer mouse is a common carrier.
The ELISA test for IgM against hantavirus was positive on blood samples taken on day 18 (1: 100 dilution) and day 29 (1: 100 and 1: 500 dilutions).
Herewith, six years before the description of Sin Nombre virus- (SNV-) induced HPS as a newly recognized disease in Southwestern USA [4], a very similar entity of acute noncardiogenic lung edema, during a hantavirus infection in a previously healthy young adult, was already reported from Europe.
With the aim of exploring hantavirus infection in other regions of Colombia a laboratory survey was designed enrolling patients with febrile syndromes from the municipalities of Meta Department, in the eastern area (Orinoquia region) of Colombia.