Given the mixed pattern of findings associated with investigations involving written text, as well as the potential methodologically-based information processing explanation for this finding, the purpose of the present research was to clarify the issue of mode of presentation by conducting highly controlled experiments that presented equivalent amounts of information across electronic and hard copy
Those at the hard copy
end of the continuum emphasized paper's superior portability, support for flexible ergonomics, and greater reliability in reading to detect errors.
The Air Force Institute of Technology is perhaps typical, covering the entire range from providing only conventional hard copy
, to providing electronic format on disk, to complete use of electronic format via the internet.
During the past few years, electronic mail (e-mail) has supplanted hard copy
letters and memos as the dominant form of intraorganizational communication.
The typed hard copy
must be double spaced with a word count of between 2000 and 3000 words; the paper must be computer-generated on either a Mac or a PC.
Taxpayers may use data compression or formatting technologies as part of the system, but all books and records must be legible and readable when displayed on a video display terminal or reproduced in hard copy
. Information a taxpayer maintains in an electronic storage system must support his or her books and records (including those in an ADP system).
"No one made him go on Hard Copy
or Canadian TV," he said.
While Par may have won an "ET" fee increase, the company could have to take lower fees for "Hard Copy
" when that show is renewed, either on CBS stations or elsewhere.
Most financial information currently contained on the Internet simply duplicates the hard copy
or portions of the hard copy
in hypertext form.
Although not all software packages can convert data to ASCII, they can transmit data to a printer and produce a hard copy
of the file.
* If a taxpayer maintains records in both hard copy
and machine-sensible (i.e., electronic) forms, the taxpayer must provide the state taxing authority with access to the records in machine-sensible form at the time of an audit if so requested by the taxing authority.
The data can be presented without creating a hard copy
, thus ensuring confidentiality.