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various standardized metal products for industrial or general purposes.
Industrial hardware conventionally includes cold-rolled steel strip, steel wire and the products made from it (nails, cables, netting, metal mesh and cord for tires, and welding electrodes), fastenings (bolts, nuts, pins, screws, wood screws, lock washers, and cotter pins), rivets, railroad spikes, rail anchors, and telegraph and telephone brackets. General-purpose hardware includes steel balls (for ball mills), iron forks, milk pails, crosscut saws, ripsaws, frame saws, and circular saws, and various kinds of knives.
Hardware production is an independent area of ferrous metallurgy and metalworking.
REFERENCESMetalloizdeliia promyshlennogo naznacheniia: Spravochnik. Edited by E. A. Iavnilovich. Moscow, 1966.
Volkova, T. I. Tovarovedenie metallov, metallicheskikh izdelii i rud. Moscow, 1969.
E. M. STARIKOV
Computer hardware typically consists chiefly of electronic devices (CPU, memory, display) with some electromechanical parts (keyboard, printer, disk drives, tape drives, loudspeakers) for input, output, and storage, though completely non-electronic (mechanical, electromechanical, hydraulic, biological) computers have also been conceived of and built.
See also firmware, wetware.
hardwareMachinery and equipment (CPUs, drives, keyboards, printers, scanners, cables, etc.). In operation, a computer is both hardware and software, and one is useless without the other. The hardware design specifies the command format it can follow, and the software instructions in that format tell it what to do. See instruction set and computer.
Hardware Is "Speed, Storage and Transmission"
The more memory (RAM) and storage (hard and solid state drives) a computer has, the more work it can do. The faster memory and drives transfer data and instructions to the CPU and the faster instructions are executed, the more work gets done in a given time frame. A hardware requirement is based on the quantity of data processed and the number of users or applications being served simultaneously. How much? How fast?
Software Is "Logic and Language"
Software deals with the details of an ever-changing business and must process transactions in a logical fashion. Languages are used to program the software. For the IT department, the "logic and language" involved in systems analysis and software programming is an order of magnitude more complicated than specifying a hardware storage and transmission requirement. See software, information system and wares.