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Any physical system that is bound to a position of stable equilibrium by a restoring force or torque proportional to the linear or angular displacement from this position. If such a body is disturbed from its equilibrium position and released, and if damping can be neglected, the resulting vibration will be simple harmonic motion, with no overtones. The frequency of vibration is the natural frequency of the oscillator, determined by its inertia (mass) and the stiffness of its restoring force.
The harmonic oscillator is not restricted to a mechanical system, but might, for example, be electric. Typical electronic oscillators, however, are only approximately harmonic.
If a harmonic oscillator, instead of vibrating freely, is driven by a periodic force, it will vibrate harmonically with the period of the force; initially the natural frequency will also be present, but any damping will eventually remove the natural motion. See Damping, Forced oscillation, Harmonic motion
In both quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, the harmonic oscillator is an important problem. It is one of the few rigorously soluble problems of quantum mechanics. The quantum-mechanical description of electromagnetic, electronic, mesonic, and other fields is usually carried out in terms of a (time) Fourier analysis. The individual Fourier components of noninteracting fields are independent harmonic oscillators. See Anharmonic oscillator