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an 18th-century Swedish political party. Formed in the 1730’s, it represented the interests of certain elements in the nobility and of some leading members of the bourgeoisie, especially those living in the capital. The party sought to revenge Sweden’s defeat in the Northern War of 1700–21 and to restore the country’s influence in foreign affairs and its military might through the rapid development of industry and a rapprochement with France. The Hats came to power in 1738 after gaining a majority in the Riksdag and bringing down the government of A. Horn. Strong opposition to the party, however, arose as a result of Sweden’s defeat in the war with Russia of 1741–43, which the Hats had instigated, and the inflation and financial collapse caused by the country’s participation in the Seven Years’ War of 1756–63. In 1765 the Hats, who had become increasingly identified as the party Of the conservative nobility, were displaced from power by the party known as the Young Caps (seeCAPS). From 1769 to 1771 the Hats again had a majority in the Riksdag. The palace revolution of 1772 led to the abolition of political parties, including the Hats.