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(from French baile). (1) Conventional unit (in English, number) for measuring stages or intensity of certain phenomena (for example, in meteorology for measuring wind and cloud velocities; in seismology, the force of the vacillating crust of the earth).
(2) A numerical notation (in English, mark or grade) of evaluation of the academic progress and behavior of students. In the general-education schools of prerevolutionary Russia, both five-ball and 12-ball systems were used. In the USSR, a five-ball system was introduced into the primary, eight-year, secondary, and specialized secondary schools in 1944 and remains in effect to the present day. According to this system, 5 means excellent, 4 is good, 3 is satisfactory, 2 is poor, and 1 is very poor. In the schools of certain other countries, the highest ball may be 1 (for example, in the German Democratic Republic, which uses a five-ball system), or a different number of balls, may be used (for example, a 10 is used in the Netherlands and an 11 in Italy).
(3) Numerical measurement (in English, point) of the results of a contest in some types of sport (such as gymnastics, swimming, and figure skating).
(4) Evaluation of the quality of agricultural livestock in exhibitions.
(5) As used in balloting [to refer to the small object dropped into the box or urn in some forms of secret voting].
an item of sports equipment, usually spherical, having the property of elastic deformation. It is used primarily in team sports.
Most balls, for example, those used in soccer, volleyball, basketball, and rugby, are hollow (with a casing and a rubber bladder).
|Sport1||Circumference at diameter cross section (mm)||Weight (g)|
|1 Children’s balls for these sports are lighter in weight and smaller in circumference.|
|2 Handballs for women are lighter in weight and smaller in circumference|
|Water polo ..............||680–710||400–450|
|Table tennis ..............||37.2–38.2||2.40–2.53|
Some balls consist of a dense, compact core, made by molding various materials, and are covered with a casing of synthetic materials or leather (for example, those used in bandy and field hockey). A special group consists of hollow balls (without bladder chambers) with a constant pressure (for example, tennis balls, table-tennis balls, and balls used in artistic gymnastics).
The color of balls used in different games is strictly regulated: white for table tennis, badminton, and field hockey, and orange for bandy. Balls used in soccer, volleyball, handball, and water polo are traditionally made of 18 or 32 sections according to specified configurations. For the sizes and weights of sports balls see Table 1.
The ball used for playing badminton is a shuttlecock, which consists of a plastic or cork head, usually covered with rubber, and a cone-shaped plastic or feather stabilizer. The diameter of the head is 25–28 mm, and the greatest diameter of the stabilizer is 65 mm. The overall length of the shuttlecock measures 65–70 mm, and the weight ranges from 4.5 to 4.8 g.
In addition to sports balls, there are stuffed balls, which are used for training purposes, for example, medicine balls that weigh from 1 to 5 kg. Balls fastened to springs or pulleys and balls suspended from ropes are used in various sports training devices.
V. V. PAKHOMOV
What does it mean when you dream about a ball?
Balls can indicate everything from a game or some other form of relaxation to memories from our childhood. Balls can also have metaphorical connotations, such as being “tossed around,” “the ball’s in your court,” “having a ball” (having a good time) and “having balls” (courage). Any of these may be helpful in determining the meaning of this dream. A deeper, more universal symbolism is that circles and balls represent completeness and wholeness.