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One of the anterior pair of renal organs in higher vertebrate embryos; the pair initiates formation of the archinephric duct.



the excretory organ in the embryos of lower vertebrates; in higher vertebrates, including man, the pronephros is vestigial and nonfunctional. During embryonic development, the pronephros is replaced by the mesonephros. In most taxonomic groups the excretory ducts of the pronephros have a single filtering apparatus—a vascular glomerulus located near the funnel (nephrostome) through which each tubule of the pronephros opens into the coelom. The other ends of the tubules merge and form the rudiment of the pronephrotic canal, which grows toward the posterior end and terminates in the cloaca.

References in periodicals archive ?
Head kidney and spleen were collected in TRI sure (Bioline) for RNA extraction.
RNA extraction: The tissues of Head kidney and spleen were homogenized in 1ml of TRI Sure (Bioline) to disrupt the cellular contents and release of RNA.
Amplification of cDNA through RT-PCR: TNF-a gene expression was examined in the head kidney and spleen through RT-PCR and expression under stimulation with LPS and Poly I.
Factors influencing in vitro respiratory burst assays with head kidney leucocytes from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).
PAMP induced expression of immune relevant genes in head kidney leukocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Requirements for nitric oxide production by turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) head kidney macrophages.