w] is the world coordinate system, (x, y, r) indicates vehicle's pose in which the location coordinate is (x, y) and the heading angle
It displays the present coordinates of the robot, heading angle
, distance to be travelled in order to reach the destination.
The odometer filter estimates the velocity of the land vehicle, the heading filter estimates the heading angle
(true course) using information about GPS true course magnetic variation and corrected magnetic course, and the position filter estimates the position, velocity and the heading of the complex GPS and DR system.
0] , are computed from predicted heading angle
error and lateral offset as follows
1) Because the striations are affected by both the heading angle
of the tire and the amount of braking, these tire marks offer a glimpse into the actions of the driver when the tire marks were deposited.
In another article, authors consider the safety and real-time working principles of intelligent vehicles: the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is used to calculate the heading angle
and the path velocity for a robot.
v]] denote the velocity, path angle, and heading angle
of the spacecraft, respectively; [[alpha]; [beta]] are attack angle and slide angle of the spacecraft; T is the thrust, which is fixed on 1173.
From these digitized paths, the parameters analyzed included heading angle
relative to the odor source, heading angle
relative to directly upstream, turn angle, walking speed, walking speed while moving, walking speed toward the odor source, time spent moving, and time spent turning.
Then it is possible to calculate the compass heading angle
(yaw) with respect to the magnetic north.
Gyros drifts in tilt angles (pitch, roll) and heading angle
are corrected with the help of accelerometers and magnetometers outputs.
X--flight path heading angle
in North-East-Down reference frame
The on-board navigation sensors provide the position and heading angle
of the tractor.