So are the terminal problem of bringing a two-wheeled double-track mobile robot to a given point and the problem of bringing the vessel at a given heading angle
. Herewith, it is required to ensure the possibility of pursuing the so-called "strong" vessel maneuvers.
An IMU (PMU-6050) is placed in block-2 as well to detect the heading angle
of the robot and to be kept aligned with the front riser of the staircase.
The fundamental principle of DR is based on the position of vehicle at the last moment, using the vehicle's heading angle
and the unit distance to calculate the vehicle position at the current time.
in which (s) is the arc length; C(s) is the path's curvature; ([[theta].sub.p]) is the heading angle
; (d) is the perpendicular distance between the rear axle and the path; (L) is the distance between the front and rear axles; [[theta].sub.t] is the angle between the tangent of the arc and the longitudinal axis, as shown in Figure 6; ([u.sub.2]) is the path controller law output; and [v.sub.s] is the steering angular velocity.
and [R.sub.1], [R.sub.2], and [R.sub.3] are rotation matrices about the bank angle [phi], pitch angle [theta], and heading angle
A program is developed using MATLAB[R], which computes the coordinates of the rear axle center for each position of the front axle center In every subsequent iteration, the front axle is advanced by a small distance resulting in [DELTA][theta] increase in the heading angle
of the tractor's wheelbase.
It displays the present coordinates of the robot, heading angle
, distance to be travelled in order to reach the destination.
One side, besides measurements from accelerometer, GPS-measured heading angle
for micronavigation system is afforded as the measurement to enhance the observability in normal driving condition.
1) and provides the position and heading angle
. The odometer filter estimates the velocity of the land vehicle, the heading filter estimates the heading angle
(true course) using information about GPS true course magnetic variation and corrected magnetic course, and the position filter estimates the position, velocity and the heading of the complex GPS and DR system.
(1) Because the striations are affected by both the heading angle
of the tire and the amount of braking, these tire marks offer a glimpse into the actions of the driver when the tire marks were deposited.
In another article, authors consider the safety and real-time working principles of intelligent vehicles: the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is used to calculate the heading angle
and the path velocity for a robot.
From these digitized paths, the parameters analyzed included heading angle
relative to the odor source, heading angle
relative to directly upstream, turn angle, walking speed, walking speed while moving, walking speed toward the odor source, time spent moving, and time spent turning.