* 1949-1955: The weighted annual average heat rate
for fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants in the United States, as published by EIA in Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses--1981 and Steam-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses--1978.
Coal fueled electricity generating units generate more electricity, use more fuel input, have a lower heat rate
(meaning they are more efficient), a larger capacity and higher nameplate capacity factor compared to natural gas fueled electricity generating units.
The Fitch rating case includes stresses to O&M, major maintenance, heat rate
, and availability, resulting in an average DSCR of approximately 1.4x through 2023.
Engine heat rate
increase is modeled based on turbine degradation only.
In order to remain competitive while still containing costs and meeting emission limits, generation facilities must lower their heat rate
(which reflects an improved thermal operating efficiency), lower the amount of pollutants like nitrogen oxides, and reduce maintenance costs.
Under the 2003 Electricity Act compensation for energy used in generation is to be based on scheduled generation and to depend on operating heat rate
. There is evidence that state electricity regulatory commissions have set compensation for fuel use based on very high estimates of operating heat rate
, suggesting that this may not provide much of an incentive for plants to improve thermal efficiency.
--Fixed price tolling agreements mitigate fuel price risk, and market-based heat rate
penalities are minimized in a low natural gas price environment.
* Extremely low simple cycle plant heat rate
, with the plant easily meeting the contract guarantee.
Utilities are enhancing their boilers' heat rate
and lowering equipment maintenance costs by using the Posimetric bulk solid feeder developed by Pennsylvania Crusher Corp.