To test the antigenic relationship of the clade 18.104.22.168 virus to the endemic clade 22.214.171.124 virus, we conducted a hemagglutination-inhibition test
with ferret antiserum raised against viruses from these and other H5N1 clades (Table 2) (8).
Layers inoculated with the LPAIV A/Bobwhite Quail/Pennsylvania/20304/98 (H7N2) were tested for antibody levels in the serum and egg yolk by using the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), hemagglutination-inhibition test
(HI), anda commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
A hemagglutination-inhibition test
using chicken erythrocytes demonstrated no serum antibodies against avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 1 in any of the 3 birds.
Seroconversion was detected only in turkeys by using a hemagglutination-inhibition test
in 1 study (9), which might indicate higher sensitivity of competitive ELISAs used in our study.
Because the ELISA and hemagglutination-inhibition test
can be cross-reactive between WNV, St.
The first 10 positive serum specimens, all of which had dengue antibodies were sent for confirmation to the National Health Laboratory Services in South Africa, where all were subsequently found to be positive for dengue IgG and IgM by hemagglutination-inhibition test
and ELISA, respectively.
An influenza (H5N1)-associated household was defined as a household or a village poultry farm where 1) an influenza (H5N1)-infected patient resided, 2) influenza (H5N1) was identified in poultry, or 3) duck serum specimens were positive by hemagglutination-inhibition test
for anti-influenza (H5N1) antibodies (5).
There was no increase in serum antibodies against other viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, rubella virus, and mumps virus by enzyme immunoassay, and against Japanese encephalitis virus by hemagglutination-inhibition test
. Results for antinuclear antibody and antiganglioside antibodies were also negative.
Serologic diagnosis was performed with a hemagglutination-inhibition test
and confirmed by a plaque-reduction neutralization test (8).
Postvaccination serum samples were analyzed for antibody against all three components of the 1996-97 vaccine using the hemagglutination-inhibition test
Antigenic characterization of parainfluenza 4A and 4B by the hemagglutination-inhibition test
and distribution of HI antibody in human sera.
Manvell for providing the reference sera used in the hemagglutination-inhibition test