The researcher explained how the new test technology uses various forms of carbohydrates that can capture the hemagglutinin
and neuraminidase, and via a colour change or other signal, indicate both infection and the specific type or strain of flu virus.
(11.) Krammer F, Margine I, Tan GS, Pica N, Krause JC, Palese P A carboxy-terminal trimerization domain stabilizes conformational epitopes on the stalk domain of soluble recombinant hemagglutinin
Other currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines for adults are formulated to contain a total of 45 mcg of influenza virus hemagglutinin
(15 mcg HA from each of the three influenza strains per dose).
Thirty-nine study participants received MVA-H5-serumfree Munich-Rotterdam (sfMR), which encoded hemagglutinin
of influenza virus A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1), and 40 received vector control.
The genes code for the proteins hemagglutinin
and neuraminidase, which help flu viruses enter and infect cells.
For influenza A viruses, modifications of N-linked glycosylation sites in the globular head of the hemagglutinin
protein have been linked to changes in virulence, antigenicity, receptor-binding preference, fusion activity, and immune evasion (4).
The samples were analyzed on grounds of drinking water, feces, contaminated soil, and cloacal and tracheal swabs, where the chicken, pigeon and environmental sample isolates showed that six internal genes were derived from avian H9N2 viruses, but the ancestor of their hemagglutinin
(HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes is unknown.
The introduced viral genes encode a surface protein called hemagglutinin
(HA), an enzyme known as neuraminidase (NA), and two proteins dubbed M1 and M2.
Staff further studied the specimen with conventional RT-PCR primers and probes for the hemagglutinin
and neuraminidase genomes.
Kawaoka explained that the majority of the viruses in the study, from both humans and birds, display mutations in the surface protein hemagglutinin
, which the pathogen uses to bind to host cells.