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Sonographically, extramammary metastases may appear differently when the cancer seeds the breast through hematogenous versus lymphatic routes.
Suppression of early hematogenous dissemination of human breast cancer cells to bone marrow by retinoic Acid-induced 2.
Most patients with OM caused by anaerobic organisms have an anaerobic infection elsewhere in their body which is the source of the hematogenous spread.
Alternatively, a patent foramen ovale with right-to-left shunting would allow hematogenous spread to bypass the lungs.
The diagnoses of such lesions can facilitate the quick and accurate identification of treatment targeting the underlying condition; hence, knowledge about the characteristics of skin lesions that are capable of metastasizing, especially from breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, hematogenous malignancies, and melanoma, are of particular importance.
After 5 days from the intra-articular aspiration, an implant revision was performed in two stages for late chronic and hematogenous infections and 1 stage for the early infection.
Due to high propensity of the organism for hematogenous dissemination, blood culture was performed to check its presence in blood, which was negative.
Histopathologic examination of the removed thrombus revealed the presence of adenocarcinoma cells that showed positive staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), ER, and PgR expressions, indicating hematogenous dissemination of malignant cells (Figures 3(a), 3(b), and 3(c)).
Pathogens can reach the spine via three routes: by direct inoculation after a trauma or vertebral surgery, by hematogenous spread after skin, oral, urinary, digestive, or pulmonary infections, or by contiguous spread from surrounding infected tissues.
Three mechanisms for the development of intracerebral abscesses have been proposed: (1) direct extension from contiguous structures such as the teeth, middle ear, sinuses, or mastoid via venous circulation; (2) hematogenous spread from other sites such as the GI tract, heart, or lungs; and (3) following neurosurgical procedures or penetrating trauma to the skull [3].
As these lesions developed after treatment for progressive dyspnea, we postulate the degree of iatrogenic immunosuppression was permissive for hematogenous dissemination of the Nocardia to the lung.
However many publications are based on the assumption that there are two mechanisms of sarcoma spread to the brain: hematogenous dissemination into the brain parenchyma and contiguous extension from the adjacent bones [5, 6].