artificial kidney

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Related to hemodialyzer: Harrington rod, hemodialyzer membrane

kidney, artificial,

mechanical device capable of assuming the functions ordinarily performed by the kidneys. In treating cases of kidney failure a tube is inserted into an artery in the patient's arm and blood is channeled through semipermeable tubes immersed in a bath containing all the normal blood chemicals except urea and other metabolic waste products. Since the concentration of harmful metabolic wastes are higher in the blood than in the bath, they pass through the walls of the tubes into the bath and purified blood is returned to the body. This process of blood purification, called hemodialysis (see dialysisdialysis
, in chemistry, transfer of solute (dissolved solids) across a semipermeable membrane. Strictly speaking, dialysis refers only to the transfer of the solute; transfer of the solvent is called osmosis.
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), is continuous or intermittent, depending on the residual kidney function in the patient. Kidney transplants usually make hemodialysis unnecessary.

artificial kidney:

see kidney, artificialkidney, artificial,
mechanical device capable of assuming the functions ordinarily performed by the kidneys. In treating cases of kidney failure a tube is inserted into an artery in the patient's arm and blood is channeled through semipermeable tubes immersed in a bath
..... Click the link for more information.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kidney, Artificial


hemodialyzer, an apparatus for the temporary replacement of the excretory function of the kidneys.

The artificial kidney is used to rid the blood of metabolic products, to correct electrolyte-water and acid-alkaline balances in acute and chronic renal insufficiency, to remove dialyzing toxic substances in cases of poisoning, and to remove excess water in cases of edema. In 1913 the American scientist J. Abel created an apparatus for dialysis that was the basis for the design of the artificial kidney; in 1944 the Dutch scientist W.J. Kolff was the first to employ an artificial kidney successfully.

The artificial kidney operates on the principle of the dialysis of substances through a semipermeable membrane (cellophane). Dialysis is a result of the differences in the concentrations of substances in the blood and in the dialyzing solution, which contains glucose and the principal electrolytes of the blood in nearly physiological concentrations without containing any of the substances that must be removed from the body (urea, creatinine, uric acid, sulfates, phosphates). Proteins, formed elements of the blood, bacteria, and substances with a molecular weight of more than 30,000 do not pass through the membrane. During hemodialysis (that is, the operation of the artificial kidney; see Figure 1) the patient’s blood is drawn off through a catheter by a pump from the inferior vena cava and passed inside the chambers of cellophane sheets of the dialyzer; these chambers are washed outside by the dialyzing solution, which is supplied by another pump. Partially purified, the blood is returned to one of the surface veins.

Figure 1. Diagram of Soviet-model artificial kidney apparatus: (1) catheter, (2) pump, (3) dialyzer, (4) catheter for returning blood to the patient, (5) tank for the dialyzing solution

Hemodialysis takes between four and 12 hours; during that time anticoagulants (heparin) are administered to keep the blood from clotting. In acute renal insufficiency the hemodialysis is repeated every three to six days until renal function is restored. With chronic insufficiency, when the treatment is necessary two or three times a week for several months or years, the artificial kidney is hooked up to a teflon shunt that is implanted between the radial artery and the surface vein of the forearm; in this case the blood can enter the dialyzer without the use of a pump. In the USSR, Sweden, France, and the United States, artificial kidney treatment is conducted in special centers that deal with kidney disturbances. The models used in the USSR are developed by the Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Surgical Equipment and Instruments of the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR. Semiautomatic systems for preparing the dialyzing solution and delivering it to the dialyzer are used in performing hemodialysis on several patients simultaneously.


Iskusstvennaia pochka i ee klinicheskoe primenenie. Moscow, 1961.
Fritz, K.W. Hamodialyse. Stuttgart, 1966.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

artificial kidney

[¦ärd·ə¦fish·əl ′kid·nē]
An apparatus that performs the work of the kidney in purifying blood; used only in cases of renal failure or shutdown.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is our interpretation that the hearing loss in our 2 patients can be explained by (1) an acute osmotic imbalance caused by hemodialysis or (2) an acute labyrinthine injury secondary to the introduction into the bloodstream of degraded product from an old cellulose acetate membrane in a hemodialyzer that had been in use for 15 years.
26% (36/139) of facilities reported inferring TCV from the manufacturer's product information; 14% (19/139) reported using batch testing and/or an average TCV for a group of hemodialyzers to infer TCV.
Several interrelated factors have combined to decrease blood loss over the past decade, including use of more efficient hollow-fiber hemodialyzers, patient-specific heparin protocols, and the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs to improve outcomes.
Ronco targets physicians who care for dialysis patients, and cites it as a tool for students and fellows to incorporate important information and to plan new experiments and new clinical trials on the innovative dialysis technique called HDx, made possible by the advanced HRO membrane and Theranova hemodialyzers. The new multidimensional classification is presented, offering the possibility to consider dialysis membranes from different points of view and using different reference parameters.
Regulatory and legal issues in the reprocessing and reuse of hemodialyzers. A critical overview.
Jamil Ahmad, told me he had purchased five new American kidney machines (hemodialyzers) some two years earlier.
Nakamura, "Elution of bisphenol-A from hemodialyzers consisting of polycarbonate and polysulfone resins," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol.
Elution of bisphenol A from hemodialyzers consisting of polycarbonate and polysulfone resins.
The next section describes the theoretical rationale for hemodiafiltration, providing a detailed analysis of the mass separation process, the hydraulic properties of the dialyzers, fluid mechanics, and crossfiltration in hollow fiber hemodialyzers. A section on the clinical effects of hemodiafiltration concludes the book.
Formaldehyde was used to disinfect as early as the late 1880s and is still used to reprocess hemodialyzers for reuse on the same patient and to decontaminate biologic safety cabinets and laboratories (35-37).
The majority of the facilities reprocessed and reused hemodialyzers. Of 636 chain facilities, nearly one-fourth were members of the largest national chain, followed by members of the second largest national chain, and of large chains, small chains, and midsized chains.
Infections with Mycobacterium chelonae in patients receiving dialysis and using processed hemodialyzers. J Infect Dis.