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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The escape of blood from the vascular system.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Through comparing the effects of endoscopic neurosurgery, stereotactic treatment and craniotomy for 30 patients with cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia, Cho et al.
The use rate of tPA (Boehringer Ingelheim, GmbH) intravenous thrombolytic therapy and the treatment situations of AIS patients with previous histories of cerebral hemorrhage within 4.5 h of arrival at the hospital were obtained.
(12) Nd:YAG laser hyaloidotomy is another noninvasive method which enables drainage of extensive premacular subhyaloid hemorrhage into the vitreous, facilitates absorption of blood cells, and improves vision within days by clearance of the obstructed macular area.
After discharge, the patients were demanded to return to the hospital if hemorrhage emerged.
Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke in which there is bleeding in the brain due to high blood pressure.
The researchers found that among 5,435 eligible patients, 5,076 were not taking anticoagulant therapy at symptom onset and 20 percent (1,009) had intracerebral hemorrhage growth.
In the above case, in the setting of a repeat cesarean delivery in a woman with placenta previa, there is an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Therefore, appropriate blood products and equipment should be made available before the operation is initiated.
In our case, we investigated other conditions that may be the cause of LBBB in our patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The cause of episodic LBBB in our patient was linked to subarachnoid hemorrhage.
In conclusion, in a patient with hemiparesis developed following a blunt head trauma, detailed investigation of brain stem contusion and/or hemorrhage could be recommended if the neurological loss could not be explained by supratentorial or spinal cord lesions.
After hemorrhage absorption, LCs were observed in 32 eyes (97.0%) at the location of the initial hemorrhage, and the mean BCVA improved to 0.38 [+ or -] 0.26 logMAR (0 to 1.0 logMAR) from the initial examination.
Tsukahara, "Nd:YAG laser photo-disruption for preretinal hemorrhage due to retinal macroaneurysm," Retina, vol.
Pamir, "Cerebellar hemorrhage after spinal surgery: case report and review of the literature," European Spine Journal, vol.