Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to hemorrhoids: external hemorrhoids


(hĕm`əroidz) or


dilatations of the veins about the anus (external hemorrhoids) or those higher up inside it (internal hemorrhoids). They appear as small, rounded, purplish tumors, often complicated by inflammation, clotting, and bleeding. Hemorrhoids are very common phenomena and are brought about by factors that produce venous congestion, such as constipation, diarrhea, or pregnancy. In some instances, the pain from inflamed hemorrhoids can be intense, and the bleeding so profuse as to pose the threat of anemia. Hemorrhoids that are uncomplicated or bleed only slightly at infrequent intervals do not require specific treatment except to improve the condition that may be causing them, such as constipation. Hemorrhoids that are very painful or bleed excessively are treated by warm baths and suppositories and, if necessary, by injection, laser surgery, or traditional surgery.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



varicose dilatation of the rectal veins, mainly in the anal region. There are external (subcutaneous) and internal (submucosal) hemorrhoids. Those with hemorrhoids are usually middle-aged and elderly persons, males three times as often as females.

The development of hemorrhoids is promoted by factors that raise blood pressure and cause hemostasis in the veins of the lesser (pulmonary) circulation and venous plexus of the rectum (such as chronic constipation, prolonged standing during work, pelvic and abdominal tumors, cirrhosis of the liver, and, in females, improper position of the uterus or pregnancy). Hereditary or congenital structural weakness of the veins is another factor. As the disease develops, pruritus, a burning sensation, and pain appear in the anus. During defecation or strenuous exertions the hemorrhoids prolapse, and eventually this also happens during walking. The prolapsed hemorrhoids are often thrombosed and inflamed. They may become strangled and necrotic following constriction of the anal sphincter. Bleeding is one of the most prominent symptoms of hemorrhoids, and it may give rise to anemia. Treatment for hemorrhoids consists of eliminating the predisposing factors and taking overhead cold showers. In case of constipation, laxatives, enemas, and a restricted diet are recommended, and in severe cases, surgery. Preventive measures include the correction of constipation, abstention from alcohol and coarse or spicy food, and exercise therapy.


O bolezniakh priamoi i tolstoi kishok. Edited by A. N. Ryzhikh. Moscow, 1963.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cao tieu tri An Tri Nam from Tam Minh Duong has become increasingly popular in Vietnam for treating internal hemorrhoids 1, 2, 3, 4, external hemorrhoids, dysentery, and a host of other such ailments.
Table-I: Comparison of patients' characteristics between hemorrhoids and control groups.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial from Jan 2015 to Dec 2016 on patients reporting to the OPD of department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi with complaints of bleeding per rectum and diagnosed as a case of bleeding non-prolapsed hemorrhoids fulfilling the sample selection criteria.
Other options include sclerotherapy, in which a solution is injected around the blood vessel to shrink the hemorrhoid, and infrared coagulation, in which a device is used to burn the hemorrhoidal tissue.
Hemorrhoids may be located inside the rectum (internal hemorrhoids) or they may develop under the skin around the anus (external hemorrhoids).
Other at-home treatment options include taking a stool softener, sitting in tub of warm water several times a day to help relieve the pain, and using over-the-counter hemorrhoid cream or suppositories.
Diagnosing Hemorrhoids The chief symptom of a hemorrhoid is bright red blood seen on toilet tissue or in the toilet bowl.
The most remarkable thing about his medical history was the diagnosis of thrombosed external hemorrhoids that presented with rectal bleeding 10 months ago.
Primary care physicians can readily learn to do mucosal banding for grade II and III prolapsing hemorrhoids in the office, she noted.
In many instances, symptomatic hemorrhoids can be managed and even prevented with changes to your diet and bowel habits, along with simple over-the-counter treatments.
Conservative medical treatment is generally effective for grade 1 and 2 hemorrhoids; however, grade 3 and 4 hemorrhoids require surgical intervention.
The exceptions in the hemorrhoid realm are external thrombosed hemorrhoids, which are exceedingly painful but also readily identifiable, and incarcerated hemorrhoids, which are quite rare.