(a) The entire hepatic portal system
including the portal vein, artery, and biliary system was exposed; (b) in the Pringle maneuver group, the blood inflow to the entire liver was blocked by clamping across the hepatoduodenal ligament; (c) in the hemihepatic vascular occlusion group, the left hepatic portal vein and middle artery were occluded, allowing the normal blood supply to reach the right hemiliver; (d) in the hepatic blood inflow occlusion without hemihepatic artery control group, the portal vein was interrupted without interrupting the hepatic artery.
Venous portal systems occur in vessels carrying blood to the liver, namely, the hepatic portal system
(Portal vein), and in vessels leading to the pituitary, the hypothalamic- hypophyseal portal system.
The liver is also involved with the first-pass effect; when a drug is swallowed, it is absorbed by the digestive system and enters the hepatic portal system
. It is carried through the portal vein into the liver before it reaches the rest of the body.