The National Integrated Disease Surveillance Program, established in India in 2009, collects data on cases and outbreaks of jaundice, and supports outbreak investigations and laboratory testing for hepatitis A and hepatitis E
. During 2011-2013, large numbers of hepatitis A and hepatitis E
cases and frequent outbreaks occurred each year.
The main requirement of a vaccine is to prevent disease, which the new hepatitis E vaccine does, Emerson says.
Unlike many diseases, which prey mainly on children and old people, hepatitis E usually strikes people between 15 and 40 years of age.
If immunity to hepatitis E wanes, Innis says, scientists might design a booster shot, as they did for the whooping cough vaccine.
Zoonotic and xenozoonotic risks of the hepatitis E virus.
Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings.
Expression and self-assembly of empty virus-like particles of hepatitis E virus.
As in many jurisdictions, hepatitis E must be reported as an infectious disease throughout Australia.
To fulfill the Victorian hepatitis E case definition for surveillance purposes, one must demonstrate seroconversion, a 4-fold rise in paired serum specimens or detect highly reactive IgG in a single specimen in the presence of a clinically compatible illness (9).
The 17 highly reactive samples tested at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory during the first 2 quarters of 2004 accounted for all hepatitis E notifications in the state during this period.
pig strains is suggestive of zoonotic transmission, as is the finding of higher Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in those who work with pigs (12) and the observation that in 9 of 10 hepatitis E patients in Japan, the disease developed within 2-8 weeks of consumption of grilled or undercooked pork (6).
Occurrence of hepatitis E virus IgM, low avidity IgG serum antibodies, and viremia in sporadic cases of non-A, -B, and -C acute hepatitis.