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a large group of mammals living and feeding together, esp a group of cattle, sheep, etc.
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a group of beef cattle.

Animals in a herd are selected according to sex, age, liveweight, and fattiness. Herds are formed during the zootechnical and veterinary examination of the cattle before the beginning of pasturing. The size of the herds in meat sovkhozes is 150–200 head of younger animals, 150–200 head of fattened adult animals in steppe regions, and 100–150 in forest and forest-steppe regions. Each herd is managed by a team of two to four herdsmen.



(1) A group of mammals of the same species with interdependent behavior; that is, they remain close to one another for a significant period of time, behave similarly, often have the same rhythm of activity (for example, the simultaneous diving of whales), and travel in the same direction. Herd formation is characteristic of cetaceans, artiodactyls, perissodactyls, and monkeys. The composition (in terms of age and sex) and size of a herd fluctuate, thereby distinguishing herds from other groups of animals with interdependent behavior, for example, families and harems.

The maximum size of a herd is determined by the possibilities for mutual coordination of behavior. A herd may consist of dozens of individuals among whales and monkeys and 1,500 to 2,000 individuals among ungulates (for example, reindeer, saiga, and gnu). The largest herds are formed during seasonal migrations, after which they break up into smaller groups (families, harems). The animals in a herd orient themselves by the behavior of their neighbors (signals of the presence of food, appearance of a predator). Following the example of its leader, a herd may select a safer route during flight from a predator or during travel toward a watering place or shelter, especially during the migration period. Imitation of nearby individuals predominates in the behavior of many herd members over free decision-making, which is characteristic of solitary animals.

When animals are in a herd they permit man to approach fairly closely and possibly to control them. The patterns of herd behavior are widely used in pasture livestock raising, since domesticated hoofed animals are usually gregarious.


(2) A group of animals kept together on a farm for maintenance, fattening, or pasturing, for example, a herd of beef cattle or a herd of horses.

(3) The total number of animals of one species on a farm. The composition (sex, age, and production groups of animals), purpose, and periods of use of a herd vary with the organizational and economic conditions of herd reproduction. The necessary composition is maintained by planned rotation of the herd.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(vertebrate zoology)
A number of one kind of wild, semidomesticated, or domesticated animals grouped or kept together under human control.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The bill further stipulates that if the farmers are only injured, the herdsman would be deemed guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to imprisonment for three years or a fine of N50,000 or both.
Furthermore, the bill stipulates that any herdsman found guilty of damage to farm or crops shall after evaluation of the damage by the ministry pay the prevailing value of monetary compensation to the owner of the farm.
The Oyo State Grazing Control bill, also stipulates that grazing of cattle shall only be done in ranches, either of Control or Private Ranch, and no herdsman or cattle owner shall cause his cattle to graze on any other person's land or farmland.
According to the PPRO, the investigation revealed that the Fulani herdsman was killed by Bayode and the suspect had confessed to having committed the offence.
ASP Loveth Odah, the state Police Public Relations Officer (PPRO), told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) that the dead included three natives of the community and a herdsman.
'First is the real farmers/herdsmen clashes, where the normal herdsman moves around with his cattle and get into a farmers land and eats up his crops.
What is most troubling for people like me is the fact that all you key government functionaries are speaking one language, a language that belittles this festering genocide but fires blames in the direction of every stakeholder except the parasitic Fulani herdsman and his cowherds.
'We wish to state that the story is not correct as no suspected detained herdsman was set free as being reported in the media.
If a herdsman uses a farm to feed his animals, the government should arrest him and punish him according to the law so that he would know that what he has done is bad.
He said: 'We haven't attacked any herdsman but they have killed one now and right now, we will ensure they are not allowed to do this again.
However, if one herdsman is killed, all of them will move to that area.