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(ĕr'mētäzh`), museum in St. Petersburg, Russia, one of the world's foremost houses of art, consisting of six buildings along the embankment of the Neva River. Its central building, the Winter Palace (erected 1754–62 by Czarina Elizabeth and the traditional winter residence of the czars), was damaged in an 1837 fire and reconstructed in the neoclassical style in the 19th cent. from the original pavilion palace. Its magnificant collection began as the private collection of Catherine II (Catherine the Great), which she purchased in 1764. Opened to the public in 1852, the museum contained only the imperial collections until 1917. There are now more than three million items in the Hermitage collection, including some 8,000 paintings of the Flemish, French, Dutch, Spanish, and Italian schools as well as superb modern works, with many by Rembrandt, Rubens, Picasso, and Matisse. The art collections also include the art of India, China, Egypt, pre-Columbian America, Greece, and Rome, as well as Scythian art from the Eurasian steppe. There are tapestries, ivories, and furniture. "The Heroic Past of the Russian People" includes the War Museum and a tribute to Peter the Great. Another part is devoted to the life and works of Pushkin. Russian art is exhibited separately in Mikhailovsky Palace, which was opened in 1898. In 2004 the Hermitage, which had previously inaugurated small foreign outlets in London and Las Vegas (in collaboration with the Guggenheim MuseumGuggenheim Museum,
officially Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, major museum of modern art in New York City. Founded in 1939 as the Museum of Non-objective Art, the Guggenheim is known for its remarkable circular building (1959) with curving interior ramp designed by Frank Lloyd
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), opened a large branch in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, which exhibits loans from the parent institution.


See V. Suslov, ed., Great Art Treasures of the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg (2 vol., 1995) and the catalog Hidden Treasures Revealed: Impressionist Masterpieces and Other Important French Paintings Preserved by the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg (1995).


in France: see MontmorencyMontmorency,
town (1990 pop. 21,003), Val d'Oise dept., N France, a suburb N of Paris. J. J. Rousseau lived there (1756–62), first at the nearby "Hermitage," a cottage on the estate of his friend, Mme d'Épinay, and after his quarrel with her, in Montmorency itself.
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, France.


see Jackson, AndrewJackson, Andrew,
1767–1845, 7th President of the United States (1829–37), b. Waxhaw settlement on the border of South Carolina and North Carolina (both states claim him). Early Career

A child of the backwoods, he was left an orphan at 14.
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a name often given to such isolated structures as suburban villas and park pavilions. An example is the Hermitage in Catherine Park in the city of Pushkin (1743–54, architects M. G. Zemtsov, V. V. Rastrelli, and others). In the mid-18th century in St. Petersburg, the name was applied to the halls of the Winter Palace that housed art collections and that were open only to the elite. It later passed to the museum buildings that were erected next to the palace. In Leningrad, the museum incorporating the palace and buildings is now known as the Hermitage(seeHERMITAGE, STATE).


1. A private retreat.
2. A secluded hideaway.
3. A house of certain monastic orders.


the abode of a hermit
References in periodicals archive ?
DESCRIPTION: Located in the woods of the 800-acre Loretto Motherhouse farm in central Kentucky, Cedars of Peace offers seven hermitages rented by the day or month.
TRIPOLI, Lebanon: Readers will soon be able to take an interactive tour of the Qannoubine Valley in north Lebanon, thanks to author George Arab's soon-to-be released book which offers a detailed description of the history, caves and hermitages that can be found on location.
Arab walks the reader through the rough terrain, which is full of wild plants and dead ends, making the path a difficult journey for visitors in search of deserted caves and hermitages.
Arab said that he and his team members gathered the names of all the hermitages with the help of the elderly who live in nearby villages and are familiar with the valley.
Arab added that he and his team have uncovered 104 locations in total that will be used for the entire series, including caves and hermitages which still contain the remains of their inhabitants.
Francis, the Franciscan Monastery of the Holy Land in Washington recently opened the Hermitage, a small, secluded guesthouse where someone can take time alone to reconnect with God and his or her spiritual life.
Susan Talbot of Seattle, nearing the end of a five-day stay when NCR visited the Hermitage, was completely enthused.
She found the Hermitage online in a search for religious houses that accept guests, she said.
PLACE: Franciscan Appalachian Hermitage, Spencer, WV
DESCRIPTION: Franciscan Appalachian Hermitage, nestled in a mountains of W Va.
DESCRIPTION: Single, spacious hermitage in rustic setting available for individuals seeking private retreats or time of solitude.
Mary's Place of Solitude and Prayer invites you to one of the guest hermitages for an experience of solitude, leisure and personal enrichment.