herpes zoster


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herpes zoster,

infection of a ganglion (nerve center) with severe pain and a blisterlike eruption in the area of the nerve distribution, a condition called shingles. The causative organism is varicella-zoster, a common, filtrable virus that also causes chickenpoxchicken pox
or varicella
, infectious disease usually occurring in childhood. It is believed to be caused by the same herpesvirus that produces shingles. Chicken pox is highly communicable and is characterized by an easily recognizable rash consisting of blisterlike
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, and can hide in the nerves after a chickenpox infection has passed. Herpes zoster is most common in persons over the age of 50. It most often involves the area of the upper abdomen and lower chest, but may appear along other nerve pathways including that leading to the eye; serious ocular complications can lead to blindness. The disease can be treated with antivirals, and aspirin and other analgesics are used to relieve pain. Vaccination is recommended for individuals 50 years or older. Although the disease is generally nonrecurrent, it can permanently damage nerves and lead to postherpetic neuralgia, whose often severe, persistent pain is more difficult to control.

Herpes Zoster

 

(also called shingles), an acute viral infectious disease that affects the nervous system and skin. Some evidence suggests that the virus of herpes zoster causes chicken-pox in children.

The infectious process in herpes zoster can be concentrated along any nerve trunk, although the intercostal nerve trunks and the branches of the trigeminal nerve are especially susceptible to infection. Characteristically, only one side of the body is affected. Skin lesions are usually preceded by general malaise, elevated temperature, slight itching, tingling sensations, and neuralgic pain at the site of future eruptions. These symptoms are followed by the appearance of pink, edematous patches. Within three to four days after the onset of the fever, groups of nodules form on the edematous base; these quickly turn into vesicles with transparent contents. The local lymph nodes enlarge, and the pain intensifies. Within six to eight days, the vesicles dry and form yellowish brown crusts that subsequently fall away, leaving slightly pigmented spots.

Atypical forms of herpes zoster occur. Vesicular eruptions are absent in the abortive form, while the eruptions in the bullate form appear as large blisters. In hemorrhagic herpes zoster, the contents of the vesicles and blisters are bloody. Necrosis of tissue followed by scarring is symptomatic of gangrenous herpes zoster.

In the absence of complications, herpes zoster lasts from three to four weeks. Pain sometimes persists for several months. Treatment involves the use of pain relievers, vitamins, ultraviolet radiation, and antiviral agents. Alcoholic solutions of aniline dyes are topically applied; also recommended are neutral powders and zinc ointments or pastes.

I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER

herpes zoster

[¦hər‚pēz ′zäs·tər]
(medicine)
A systemic virus infection affecting spinal nerve roots, characterized by vesicular eruptions distributed along the course of a cutaneous nerve. Also known as shingles; zoster.
References in periodicals archive ?
For every 100 person-years of tofacitinib exposure, there were an estimated 2.0 serious infections, 1.3 opportunistic infections, 4.1 herpes zoster infections, 1.4 malignancies (including nonmelanoma skin cancer, which had an incidence of 0.7), 0.2 major adverse cardiovascular events, and 0.2 gastrointestinal perforations.
People whose psoriasis was treated with tofacitinib (Xeljanz) had a two- to threefold increased risk of herpes zoster, compared with those treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
Herpes zoster'in sikligi, malignite, immunosupresyon, otoimmun hastalik, psikolojik travma ve HIV infeksiyonu gibi durumlarda artar (1,2,4).
The herpes zoster vaccine can protect against shingles.
The overall all-cause mortality rate of our patients with herpes zoster was relatively low (13%) when considering the comorbidity conditions of the patients.
Those who received the vaccine had a rate of 0.75 herpes zoster cases per 100 people during the first year, which rose to 1.
Tufted angioma in site of healed herpes zoster: Isotopic response.
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of herpes zoster vaccines.
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: natural history, risk factors, clinical presentation, and morbidity.
We conducted a review of Canadian studies examining herpes zoster burden.
They were studied beginning between 8 days and 1 month after the onset of herpes zoster. In this prospective study, the patients were surveyed using the PDQ and a visual analog scale (VAS) to evaluate pain intensity and an 11-point scale (0 to 10) to determine itch intensity.
The vote comes several days after GlaxoSmithKline announced the Food and Drug Administration approval of Shingrix for the prevention of herpes zoster (shingles) in adults aged 50 years or older.