In Fern Clade #1 the homosporous species Stauropteris oldhamia is sister to the heterosporous species Gillesplea randolphensis + Stauropteris burntislandica.
A polytomy at the next node consists of Osmunda + Schizaea + the Permian species Skaaripteris minuta + a clade that consists of several Carboniferous fossil taxa + a clade that includes the heterosporous Hydropteridales + several living genera of Filicales.
Traditional classifications of leptosporangiate ferns recognized several families of apparently primitive filicaleans ("basal" filicaleans in this analysis), two or more families of more highly derived Filicales ("derived" filicaleans in this analysis), and two groups of heterosporous water ferns (Gifford & Foster, 1989).
The recent discovery that heterosporous leptosporangiate ferns (i.
in reconstructing the cladistics of heterosporous ferns.
Sexual reproduction: 0 = homosporous; 1 = heterosporous.