heterozygote


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heterozygote

(hĕt'ərōzī`gōt): see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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.

Heterozygote

 

a cell or organism having in its hereditary set (genotype) different forms (alleles) of a given gene.

A heterozygote is the result of the union of gametes of different genetic composition, each of which brings its own alleles to the zygote. For example, homozygous types AA and aa form gametes A and a respectively. The heterozygote obtained by the hybridization of AA and aa always forms mixed gametes (A and a). Crossing this type with itself or with the recessive parental type aa produces offspring of two types—phenotypic A and phenotypic a. The splitting of the heterozygote proceeds according to Mendel’s law. The preservation of the heterozygote is of significance in agriculture, since splitting often leads to the loss of valuable qualities. Almost all fruit trees are heterozygous; in order to avert splitting and the loss of valuable traits, they are bred by vegetative reproduction, apomixis, gynogenesis, or parthenogenesis.

IU. S. DEMIN

heterozygote

[¦hed·ə·rō′zī‚gōt]
(genetics)
An individual that has different alleles at one or more loci and therefore produces gametes of two or more different kinds with respect to their loci.
References in periodicals archive ?
Positive MTHFR C677C heterozygote gene mutation was identified in addition to the positive anticardiolipin antibody and to the positive lupus anticoagulant in our case.
CYP2C19 normal homozygotes demonstrated lowest, heterozygotes intermediate and mutant homozygotes highest AUC and plasma half life values of these PPIs.
No significant differences were observed between homozygotes and heterozygotes for the different loci.
On the other hand, multiple markers showing the expected 1 heterozygote to 1 homozygote pattern of segregation suggests that the inheritance of wheat SSR loci were not preferentially retained or lost.
Heterozygosity levels at the ten RFLP loci were similar in both populations and neither showed any tendency towards deficits of heterozygotes (see Table 1).
The most common mutation was H63D, which was found in 85.3% (29/34) ofthe patients, most of them heterozygotes. The C282Y mutation was identified only in 4 (11.8%) patients.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF COMPOUND HETEROZYGOTES INVOLVING HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES AND THALASSEMIAS
Initial hemoglobin phenotyping of the patient at 14 months of age, both by electrophoresis (cellulose acetate, polyacrylamide, acid agar) and isoelectrofocusing, showed him to be an apparent heterozygote Hb A/S, but he had recently received a blood transfusion.
Plasma OPZ area under curve (AUC) after a single oral dose of 20 mg OPZ was 421 ng.h/ml in normal homozygotes, 1403 ng.h/ml in heterozygotes and 5109 ng.h/ml in healthy Japanese mutant homozygotes.
Heterosis and heterozygote deficiencies in marine bivalves: more light?