Hidalgo

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Hidalgo

(hĭdăl`gō), in astronomy: see asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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.

hidalgo

(hēdäl`gō) [contraction of Span. hijo de algo=son of something], term designating the lowest degree of Spanish nobility, a rank above the ordinary gentry but below the great lords. The status was granted either directly from the crown (hidalgo de carta) or was inherited through birth (hidalgo de sangre). The term was known as early as the 12th cent.; the prolonged warfare to reconquer Spain from the Moors especially necessitated the continuous expansion of this knightly class. Although it did not have any political importance, the rank gave its members privileges such as use of the title Don and considerable exemption from taxation. The hidalgo is a familiar character in Spanish literature, often being portrayed as a vagabond knight.

Hidalgo

thäl`gō), state (1990 pop. 1,888,366), 8,058 sq mi (20,870 sq km), central Mexico. Pachuca de SotoPachuca de Soto
, city (1990 pop. 174,013), capital of Hidalgo state, central Mexico, at the head of a ravine surrounded by foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Pachuca, one of Mexico's oldest and most famous mining towns, was founded in 1534 on the site of an ancient Toltec
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 is the capital. Crossed by the Sierra Madre Oriental, the state is extremely mountainous; in the southern and western areas, however, are plains and fertile valleys lying within Mexico's central plateau. The climate is warm in the lower valleys, temperate on the plateau, and cold in the mountains. One of Hidalgo's chief crops is maguey (see amaryllisamaryllis
, common name for some members of the Amaryllidaceae, a family of mostly perennial plants with narrow, flat leaves and with lilylike flowers borne on separate, leafless stalks.
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), grown on the central plateau. Alfalfa, corn, sugarcane, and coffee are also cultivated. The state's main industry is mining (particularly around Pachuca), and Hidalgo is a leading national producer of silver, gold, copper, lead, iron, and sulfur. Cement, textile, automobile manufacturing and especially oil refining are other major industries. The territory was occupied successively by the Toltec (whose capital was Tollán—now TulaTula
, ancient city in the present state of Hidalgo, central Mexico. It was one of the chief urban centers of the Toltec. The city is believed to be Tollán, the legendary Toltec capital mentioned in a number of postconquest sources, including Bernardino de
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), the Chichimecs, and the Aztecs. Conquered by the Spanish in 1530, it was part of the province and state of Mexico until it became the separate state of Hidalgo in 1869. There are several hot springs in Hidalgo.

Hidalgo

(hi-dal -goh) ((944) Hidalgo) An asteroid that was discovered by Walter Baade in 1920 and has an eccentric 13.7 year orbit that carries it between 2.00 AU and 9.64 AU from the Sun, crossing the orbits of the main-belt asteroids and Jupiter and extending to that of Saturn. The eccentricity of its elliptical path is about 0.66 and its inclination to the ecliptic is 42.6?%. It has a diameter estimated at between 20 and 30 km. Until the discovery of Chiron in 1977, it had the farthest aphelion and longest period of any known asteroid. From the similarity of its orbit to those of the periodic comets, it has been suggested that Hidalgo represents the remains of a large comet nucleus. It has an albedo of 0.03 and a D-type spectrum. See Table 3, backmatter.

Hidalgo

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Hidalgo, asteroid 944 (the 944th asteroid to be discovered, on October 31, 1920) was named after the revolutionary priest who attempted to overthrow Spanish rule in Mexico. It is about 28½ kilometers in diameter and has an eccentric orbit that is the longest (14 years) of any asteroid. Hidalgo is one of the more recent asteroids to be investigated by astrologers. Preliminary material on Hidalgo can be found in Demetra George and Douglas Bloch’s Astrology for Yourself, and an ephemeris (table of celestial locations) for Hidalgo can be found in the second edition of George and Bloch’s Asteroid Goddesses. Unlike the planets, which are associated with a wide range of phenomena, the smaller asteroids are said to represent a single principle. Bloch and George (1987) give Hidalgo’s principle as “protecting and fighting for one’s beliefs”; their tentative key phrase for Hidalgo is “My capacity for self-assertion in defense of my principles.” Zipporah Dobyns associates Hidalgo with Saturn, finding that it often aspects that planet in the charts of women who reach positions of success and power. J. Lee Lehman finds that Hidalgo represents “an assertion of will over others.” This influence can be used in fighting for other people’s rights, but “Hidalgo expects to be in control, to be the general in all situations.” Lehman describes Hidalgo as a “macho” asteroid. Jacob Schwartz gives the astrological significance of this asteroid as “fighting for others’ rights; exchanges based on integrity or principles.”

Sources:

Dobyns, Zipporah. Expanding Astrology’s Universe. San Diego: Astro Computing Services, 1983.
George, Demetra, with Douglas Bloch. Astrology for Yourself: A Workbook for Personal Transformation. Berkeley, CA: Wingbow Press, 1987.
George. Goddesses: The Mythology, Psychology and Astrology of the Reemerging Feminine. 2d ed. rev. San Diego: Astro Computing Services, 1990.
Lehman, J. Lee. The Ultimate Asteroid Book. West Chester, PA: Whitford Press, 1988.
Schwartz, Jacob. Asteroid Name Encyclopedia. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1995.

Hidalgo

 

a state in Mexico, on the central plateau. Area, 21,000 sq km. Population, 1, 156,000 (1970). The city of Pachuca is the administrative center of the state. Subsistence agriculture is widespread. The basic crops are corn, beans, and agave. Oil-bearing plants, fruits, and vegetables are cultivated on the irrigated lands around Tula. Gold and silver are mined in the area. Industries include machine building in Irolo, nonferrous metallurgy in Pachuca, and the food industry in Tulancingo.


Hidalgo

 

the lower and middle knighthood in medieval Spain. The term “hidalgo” appeared at the end of the 12th century and became common in the 13th and 14th centuries as the designation for all members of the knightly estate. The hidalgos were an important military force in the reconquest of Spain from the Moors. The ruin and impoverishment of the hidalgos began in the 15th century. The hidalgos were active in the conquest of the newly opened American lands in the 16th century. The existence of large numbers of hidalgos, who although impoverished maintained the caste prejudices typical of the knighthood, was a characteristic feature of the social life of feudal Spain in the era of its decline (the late 16th and the 17th century).

Hidalgo

[hi′däl·gō]
(astronomy)
The asteroid with the second largest known mean distance from the sun, about 5.8 astronomical units.

Hidalgo

a state of central Mexico: consists of a high plateau, with the Sierra Madre Oriental in the north and east; ancient remains of Teltec culture (at Tula); rich mineral resources. Capital: Pachuca. Pop.: 2 231 392 (2000). Area: 20 987 sq. km (8103 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
21) La jurisdiccion de la Real Abadia de Santander es un ejemplo paradigmatico de la casi universal condicion hidalga de los habitantes de los territorios nortenos que monopolizaron las redes de poder de la Monarquia en su ultimo siglo de existencia.
La misma ley augusta y sacrosanta, la catolica ley con su caracter indeleble distingue a mi Monarca, y a mi tambien; en las funestas guerras que estos remotos climas asolaban, yo esforce su partido; Rey le hice, y agradecido a mi fineza hidalga me saco del error del gentilismo y a muchos mas tambien: porque con cauta providencia dispuso que a este reino viniesen de las islas mas cercanas, donde hay establecidos europeos, santos obreros de la ley sagrada, que con oculto y religioso zelo el ciego paganismo iluminaran.
Lo anterior serian solo antecedentes o precursores, por muy ilustres e importantes que resulten (y entre ellos figuraria, en las letras universales, nada menos que Julio Verne)" (Martinez de la Hidalga 16).
Aunque de condicion hidalga, el nivel economico de Gonzalo Ruiz, regidor de Medellin en 1541-1542, se aproximaria a este grupo de labradores enriquecidos.
4) Ejemplo de esas virreinas de baja alcurnia fue Maria Antonia Ceferina Pacheco de Padilla y Aguayo, hidalga andaluza descendiente del conquistador de Ubeda.
5) Los encantos de la culpa, La torre de Babilonia, El divino Orfeo (version de 1634), La vida es sueno (primera version) comienzan con silvas pareadas; La vida es sueno (segunda version), El gran mercado del mundo, A Maria el corazon, La hidalga del valle, Tu projimo como a ti, El veneno y la triaca, Mistica y real Babilonia, El orden de Melquisedec, El cubo de la Almudena comienzan en romance o con romancillo cantado; La cena del rey Baltasar abre con redondillas; El gran teatro del mundo si abre con octavas reales.
Cervantes's exemplary novel La fuerza de la sangre begins with the rape of an hidalga girl by a wealthy young nobleman, and ends with the happy marriage of rapist and victim more than seven years later.
En 1841 se inicia entonces la construccion de este coso teatral, a cargo del arquitecto Lorenzo de la Hidalga, quien disena un edificio de grandes dimensiones en todos sus elementos: foyer, platea, palcos, escenario y accesorias propias para un entramado escenografico de gran escala, como lo requeria el formato operistico.
En ese mismo predio, Santa Anna comisiono al arquitecto espanol Lorenzo de la Hidalga para construir el nuevo mercado El Volador.
Pueden mencionarse las propuestas arquitectonicas de panopticos formuladas por Ramon La Sagra en Cuba (1843), Lorenzo de la Hidalga en Mexico (1848) y Felipe Paz Roldan en Peru (1853), asi como la construccion efectiva de penitenciarias segun el modelo del panoptico, tales como la de Lima (1862), disenada por Paz Roldan; Mendoza (1864), por obra de Pompeyo Moneta; Buenos Aires (1870) con proyecto de Ernesto Bunge; Corrientes, en el noroeste argentino (1897), por obra de Juan Col; Quito y Cundinamarca (1874), Colombia, segun proyecto de Thomas Reed; y Montevideo (1885), con proyecto de Juan Alberto Capurro (Lleras, 2006; Raffa, 2007; Aguirre, 2009; Garcia, 2009).
La Inmaculada Concepcion la defienden muchos escritores del Siglo de Oro: Calderon sobre todo en el auto La hidalga del Valle (de 1640, representado en un acto en desagravio por un libelo contra la pureza original de Maria, que aparecio en Granada, cuando la Inmaculada Concepcion todavia no era dogma de fe, pero ya era defendida por la mayoria de los teologos); tambien Lope de Vega, auto de La Conception de Nuestra Senora (ed.
El ocio no es un vicio para la mentalidad hidalga, es mas bien la condicion que posibilita el pertenecer a esa parte de la sociedad que dispone de los bienes economicos, de la consideracion social y de toda una serie de privilegios legales.