By the advanced preparation technology of thin film, such as terminate oxide substrates at well-defined ionic planes, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), and high-pressure reflection high-energy electron diffraction
, many new physical phenomena have been discovered in oxide interfaces [14, 15].
Covering electron diffraction, photoemission, and alternative techniques, they look at reflection high-energy electron diffraction
, inelastic scattering, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, ion-beam surface characterization of thin multicomponent films, spectroscopies combined with reflection high-energy electron diffraction
, deposition vapor monitoring, and real-time studies of epitaxial film growth using surface X-ray diffraction.
In the early 1970s his group studied the corrosion and oxidation of nickel --thin oxide film formation using the unique combination of reflection high-energy electron diffraction
and X-ray emission analysis, high-temperature oxidation, and the formation and breakdown of films in aqueous environments.