Just one 105mm high-explosive projectile
, the most common shell used by the British Army at the moment, is powerful enough to blow a two metre-wide, half metre-deep crater.
Accurate Methods for Enhanced Survivability, an efficient and accurate analytical methodology to predict metallic and composite airframe vulnerability to a high-explosive projectile
or a fuel cell impact - by a team at Bell Helicopter, Fort Worth, Texas.
Two 155 mm high-explosive projectiles
, the M795A1 and the M1122 (a new IM training projectile), developed with sponsorship by Office of the Secretary of Defense's Technology Transition Initiative program, are both expected to reach the field in 2011.
The aircraft can survive direct hits from armor-piercing and high-explosive projectiles
from 25mm to 60mm shells.
Military science discovered that high-explosive projectiles
did not need to be stuffed with bullets, because the shattered pieces of metal shell casing that flew through the air when the projectiles exploded did as much damage and more.
The M8513 series has been in production for more than a decade and two versions are available--the M85C13 optimised for use with standard Nato 105 mm to 203 mm high-explosive projectiles
, the M85R13 for use with Eastern-bloc 130 mm projectiles, the Indian company Ecil produces three versions under licence--the M85P13A1, M85P13A2 and M85P13A3 for use on 105 mm, 130 mm and 155 mm projectiles respectively.