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see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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A term used to describe the genes that influence acceptance or rejection of grafts. When grafts of tissue are exchanged between genetically dissimilar individuals, profound immunological rejection generally takes place. In contrast, grafts between genetically similar individuals, such as identical twins, are normally tolerated; they are histocompatible. Most known examples of histocompatibility (or H) genes encode polymorphic (that is, tending to differ between individuals) cell-surface proteins.

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of histocompatibility genes, termed major because mismatching at these genes invokes rapid rejection. The main function of MHC genes involves distinguishing self from nonself in the immune system, as part of preventing the spread of infectious disease. The body employs special mechanisms to avoid rejection of the fetus, which is effectively an allograft, that is, a graft from a donor to a genetically dissimilar recipient of the same species; in this case, the mechanisms include a diminution of MHC gene expression.

The MHC contains a spectrum of genes, many of which influence processing and presentation of antigens to the immune system. In mice, the MHC is designated the H-2 complex; in humans, it is referred to as the HLA complex (for human leukocyte A system). Mice and other mammals seem to have a similar arrangement of genes in their MHCs. See Antigen, Cellular immunology, Mendelism, Transplantation biology


The capacity to accept or reject a tissue graft.
References in periodicals archive ?
If the ES cells were created through SCNT techniques, they could be used to generate transplantable tissue that was fully histocompatible with the person who received it.
FK506 (tacrolimus) monotherapy for prevention of graft-versus-host disease after histocompatible sibling allogenic bone marrow transplantation.
We believe these cells are a real alternative to embryonic stem cells for obtaining a population of histocompatible, pluripotent stem cells for regenerative purposes.
Cloned cells are not only histocompatible, but are more youthful, and potentially of greater therapeutic value than adult stem cells.
M are acting responsibly in seeking a child that is histocompatible with F.
An exact genetic match between a recipient and stem cell could theoretically be induced by using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create histocompatible stem cells.
Cells resulting from SCNT are not only histocompatible, but they have also been shown to be more youthful, and potentially of greater therapeutic value than adult stem cells.