Histomoniasis


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Related to Histomoniasis: Blackhead disease, Histomonas meleagridis

Histomoniasis

 

a parasitic disease of turkey chicks and less frequently of chickens, characterized by purulent inflammation of one or both ceca and affection of the liver. The disease is caused by protozoans—histomonads (Histomonas meleagridis). It is ubiquitous.

Mass infection of the young occurs when they are kept together with adult fowl, whose feces often contain ova of helminths of the genus Heterakis, which are infested with histomonads. Histomoniasis is fostered by crowding the chicks, disruption of their heat and light conditions, poor feeding, dampness, and poor cleaning. Usually, on the second to fourth day infected chicks develop foul-smelling diarrhea. In many, the skin of the head darkens (hence the English name of the disease—blackhead). The turkey chicks die within one to three weeks. Diagnosis is based on clinical and epizootological data and the results of laboratory tests. Furazolidone, osarsol, enteroseptol, antibiotics, and other preparations are used in treatment. Recommended preventive measures include raising chicks on screened or latticed floors and isolating them from adult fowl.

REFERENCE

Bolezni ptits. [Compiled by F. M. Orlov.] Moscow, 1962. Pages 148-58.
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Until 1950, arsenicals were the only compounds that were used to control histomoniasis in the field (Joyner et al., 1963).
Ceca of birds in the infected group (HM-M200 and HM-M500) of the in vivo study showing highest lesions of histomoniasis were transferred to culture media, and H.
Chemotherapy of histomoniasis in experimental chemotherapy (eds.
market share, for decades to prevent histomoniasis (blackhead disease) and coccidiosis (parasitic infection) and to improve weight gain and meat pigmentation (Abraham et al.
Inoculated birds died at 7-13 days post-inoculation (DPI) showing typical liver and cecal lesions of histomoniasis. By 14 DPI, 87.5% of the directly inoculated birds died or had severe lesions of histomoniasis.
The aim of our investigation was to establish a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a nested PCR, and a real-time PCR, and to examine their specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of histomoniasis. The results showed that the conventional PCR is more sensitive than the real-time PCR.