They expected that yeast genetically engineered to carry fewer copies of certain histone
genes than normal or control yeast would have chromatin changes that would result in the yeast living less than controls.
(11) These HDACIs possess specific structural components that trigger diverse functions like interruption in the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation by acting on histone
and non-histone proteins.
In this research study, Celine Tiffon examines the effects of the differentiating histone
deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) in human pancreatic cancer cell lines, representing different tumor grades.
In addition to cytosine methylation, post-translational modifications taking place in the histone
subunits composing the histone
octamer also contribute to the definition of gene expression patterns.
"Conceptually, we could use the modification, which is the methylation of adenosine residue, as a 'code' in mRNA to target histone
modifications to turn gene on or off," Zhao said.
deacetylase inhibitors have been observed to enhance apoptosis of cancer cells induced by several chemotherapeutic agents including gemcitabine [43,48-53].
proteins play an important role in DNA transcription, the participation of HATs and HDACs that form part of the transcription initiation complex with transcription factors and regulate histone
proteins has not been fully investigated in the brain.
acetylation is preferentially carried out on specific lysine: for instance, histone
H3 is mainly acetylated in positions 9, 14, 18, and 23, while the lysine of histone
H4 that are preferentially acetylated are in positions 5, 8, 12, and 16.
Huang and Akbarian found an average 8-fold deficit in repressive chromatin-associated DNA methylation at GAD1 promoters in patients with schizophrenia  and it has been shown that histone
3 (H3), one of the histone
proteins, was particularly dysregulated in schizophrenia patients .
The adding or removing of histone
marks is carried out by a group of enzymes named (1) "writers," responsible for adding ("writing") different epigenetic marks such as HAT (histone
acetyltransferase), which adds acetyl groups to histone
tails, (2) "erasers," responsible for the removal of epigenetic marks of the histone
, such as histone
deacetylases (HDACs) or histone
demethylases (HDMs), and (3) "readers," whose function is to recognize the different epigenetic marks added in the histones
Acetylation and deacetylation of histones
are controlled by histone
acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone
deacetylases (HDACs), respectively.