The PLEDs with multilayer structures (hole injection
layer (HIL)/hole transfer layer (HTL)/emission layer (EML)/electron transfer layer (ETL)/electron injection layer (EIL)) should theoretically show better electrooptical characteristics compared to PLEDs with unilayer (EML only) and bilayer structures (HIL/EML) [4-6].
Thus, the hole injection
barrier is [DELTA][E.sub.h] = [E.sub.HOMO] - 4.8 (eV) (4.8 eV is the work function of the ITO anode), whereas the electron injection barrier is [DELTA][E.sub.e] = 4.3 - [E.sub.LUMO] (eV), where 4.3 eV is the work function of aluminum cathode.
In other words, this barrier impedes hole injection
from ITO, preventing the accumulation of excess holes in the luminance layer, thus increasing the probability of e-[h.sup.+] pair combination.
In this study polymer organic devices with three polymer layers structure including hole injection
layer, hole transporting layer, and emission layer were fabricated using iridium complex as emission material by solution process.
"Dye-sensitized solar cells are a type of nanostructured solar cells whose mechanism is based on light absorption by the pigment molecules plus electron and hole injection
to a semiconductor and an electrolyte.
The most common conductive polymer used in OLEDs, typically for the hole injection
layer, is poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which is sold by Agfa (Orgacon) and Heraeus (Clevios).
The grids are highly refined near the walls and use the well known O grid strategy to well describe the vicinity of the hole injection
. The quality of the computational grid is highly improved in the sense of aspect ratio and skewness by use of the O grid strategy cited above.
Under the agreement, the companies will develop an advanced solution processible Hole Injection
Layer (HIL) technology for OLEDs.
"We're addressing one particular inefficiency of OLED technology, that of hole injection
" said Gough.
Until recently, there were three models that give vastly different projections for oxide life: the thermochemical model, the anode hole injection
model, and the hydrogen release model.
Srinivas, "Effect of thickness variation of hole injection
and hole blocking layers on the performance of fluorescent green organic light emitting diodes," Current Applied Physics, vol.