Therefore, understanding the exact mechanism of the hole trap transformation process in each layer of the gate stack is important.
This simulation study on NBTI is based on the two-stage NBTI model, which focuses on the creation of positively charged El center (hole trap density, [S.sub.2]) and dangling bond Si (interface trap/[P.sub.b] center, [S.sub.4]), which are found to exist in the dynamic NBTI measurement approach briefly discussed previously.
This study aims to account for the contribution of the hole trap to the NBTI degradation effect, whereas the earlier work explains only the interface trap generation in characterizing NBTI effects.
The solutions of the device equations along with the two-stage NBTI model are used to extract the threshold voltage degradation, hole trap, and interface trap densities .
A dopant ion may act as an electron trap or hole trap
. This would prolong the life-time of the generated charge carriers, resulting in an enhancement in photocatalytic activity .
The [E'.sub.[gamma]] center acts as a hole trap, and it is predominantly responsible for the increase in oxide trapped charge during irradiation .
Dressendorfer, "Hole traps and trivalent silicon centers in metal/oxide/silicon devices," Journal of Applied Physics, vol.
If the idea of [Mn.sup.2+] substitution for [B.sup.3+] in B + 4O tetrahedra is true, the weak bond of the O4 atom with two tetrahedra should become even weaker, and O4 would become a hole trap. Recombination at this trap should give red luminescence, while the orange luminescence band at higher temperatures should be caused by a recombination of released holes at some electron trap near [Mn.sup.2+] at the [Li.sup.+] site (where the oxygen environment is not so tight).
When [Mn.sup.2+] substitutes for [B.sup.3+], the lack of positive charge at the [B.sup.3+] position produces a much deeper hole trap at O4 oxygen.
Compared to [Li.sup.2][B.sup.4][O.sup.7]:Mn, a deeper hole trap is formed in [Li.sup.2][B.sup.4][O.sup.7]:Mn,Be at O4 when [Be.sup.2+] is substituting for [B.sup.3+].
Identification of electron and hole traps in lithium tetraborate ([Li.sup.2][B.sup.4][O.sup.7]) crystals: oxygen vacancies and lithium vacancies.
BIG LICKS: Saffy was no help ALIVE: Giles fell into the bunker at his home, above, which is based on the Road Hole trap