holm oak

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holm oak

an evergreen Mediterranean oak tree, Quercus ilex, widely planted for ornament: the leaves are holly-like when young but become smooth-edged with age

Holm Oak


(Quercus ilex), an evergreen tree of the family Fagaceae. It grows to 25 m and has a smooth bark. The leaves are elliptical, leathery, shiny, tomentose beneath, and entire or serrate. The acorns are 2 to 3.5 cm long.

The tree is native to the Mediterranean region, where it isfound both in mixed groves and separate stands. In the USSRit is cultivated in the southern Crimea and in the Caucasus alongthe Black Sea coast (south of Sochi), where it bears abundantfruit every year. The holm oak is ornamental and grows rapidly, attaining a height of 22– m in 40–45 years. It is droughtresistant, does not require good soil, and can withstand shorttemperature drops to as low as — 20°C. The wood is very hardand durable, with a density of 1.14 g per cu cm, and has a browncore. It is valuable for building underwater structures, and thewood of the roots is used in woodworking. The bark contains upto 7.25 percent of tannins. The holm oak is also suitable forlandscaping and forestation.


References in periodicals archive ?
The lower drought tolerance of holm oak seedlings (resprouter) as compared with Aleppo pine (seeder) agrees with comparative patterns of seedling mortality between resprouters and seeders observed in other communities (Zammit & Westoby, 1987; Thomas & Davis, 1989) and could be related to their biomass-partitioning model between roots, stems, and leaves.
1999) concerning the poor control of stomatal conductance and the lack of a partial leaf shedding in holm oak seedlings faced with water stress.
In Aleppo pine seedlings, a small root-to-shoot ratio, coupled with a fast leaf turnover, may be responsible for enhanced growth under high light, whereas the high root-to-shoot ratio exhibited by holm oak seedlings involves high maintenance costs and determines slow overall growth rates that are poorly ameliorated by light.
When these findings are contrasted with information about species-allocation patterns, we find that Aleppo pine seedlings exhibit low root-to-shoot ratios, whereas holm oak seedlings and adults devote a significant amount of resources to underground structures in all kinds of environments (Canadell & Rod[acute{a}], 1991; Broncano et al.
The vegetation syndromes that characterize the obligate resprouter and obligate seeder strategies of the dominant evergreen shrubs in California chaparral (Table II) (Keeley, 1986) are consistent with those found in mixed holm oak-pine forests, with pines (obligate seeders) dominating postdistu rbance conditions and arid sites and holm oak (resprouters) expanding in mesic sites during fire-free intervals.
Figure 5 summarizes the distribution of holm oak and Aleppo pine along two major environmental axes: water availability (axis I) and light intensity (axis II; namely, canopy disturbance), according to previously reported results for both species (see Espelta et al.
At the local scale, the dominance of holm oak and Aleppo pine also changes in response to the availability of water.
long-term thinning or rotation, which creates a bottleneck in holm oak canopy recruitment).
Although this effect is much stronger for the holm oak than for the pine, in the drier sites, where the pine forms monospecific forests, water stress still controls the structure of the pine population.
Seed germination and seedling performance of two Mediterranean tree species, holm oak (Quercus ilex) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis): A multifactor experimental approach.
Effect of cleaning and thinning on height growth and girth increment in holm oak coppices (Quercus ilex).
Regeneration of holm oak (Quercus ilex} -- Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forests: Experimental study of seedling response to light intensity and water availability.