hologram


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hologram

a photographic record produced by illuminating the object with coherent light (as from a laser) and, without using lenses, exposing a film to light reflected from this object and to a direct beam of coherent light. When interference patterns on the film are illuminated by the coherent light a three-dimensional image is produced
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

hologram

[′häl·ə‚gram]
(optics)
The special photographic plate used in holography; when this negative is developed and illuminated from behind by a coherent gas-laser beam, it produces a three-dimensional image in space. Also known as hologram interferometer.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

haptic hologram

A hologram that people can touch and interact with. Haptic holograms use focused ultrasound waves. For more information, visit www.ultrahaptics.com. See hologram.

holographic storage

A unique optical technology that records data as digital holograms in DVD-sized discs holding terabytes of data. Although research in holographic storage dates back to the 1960s, the first commercial product debuted in 2010 (see Tapestry). Whether this dramatically different technology has a future remains to be seen.

Two Lasers Write the Hologram
The first "data" laser is beamed through a matrix of LCD shutters, called a "spatial light modulator," into an optical region. The shutters are opened and closed based on the binary pattern of the data. For example, using a matrix of 1,000 by 1,000 bits, the data page would hold one million bits.

The second "reference" laser is angled into and intersects the data laser at the optical site. If the angle or frequency of the reference laser is changed, another hologram can be written into that area, overlapping and filling the exact same three-dimensional volume as the first hologram. Theoretically, thousands of pages can be written into the same optical space; however, the first commercial drive recorded 330 holograms.

One Laser Reads the Hologram
The page is read by directing just the reference laser back into the hologram. The light is diffracted into a copy of the binary data that is sensed by a matrix of CCD sensors. See micro-holographic, PRISM, HVD and optical disc.


The Spatial Light Modulator
Although this example uses cylinders as the optical medium rather than sections on a disc, the concept is the same. The LCD shutters are opened and closed to create the data page being stored.







The Interference Pattern
A unique interference pattern (the hologram) is created at the intersection of the two lasers in the optical material. To read the binary pattern, only the reference laser is used to output the data.







Early Prototype From IBM
The green laser beams are directed through lenses to the optical storage unit. The bottom magnification of the storage area shows the intersection where the hologram is created. The red arrow is the reference laser; the blue is the data laser. (Images courtesy of IBM Almaden Research Center.)


Early Prototype From IBM
The green laser beams are directed through lenses to the optical storage unit. The bottom magnification of the storage area shows the intersection where the hologram is created. The red arrow is the reference laser; the blue is the data laser. (Images courtesy of IBM Almaden Research Center.)

Windows Holographic

The Windows 10 augmented reality platform, which superimposes 3D images onto the user's view. In contrast, a virtual reality system is entirely immersive, and users have to remain stationary to avoid bumping into objects in the room. Users of the Windows HoloLens goggles move around comfortably in their environment.

HoloLens
The primary component of the system is the HoloLens 3D goggles, which uses motion sensing that evolved from Microsoft's Kinect technology but with a wider 120 degree field of vision. The HoloLens has a built-in CPU, graphics processing unit (GPU) as well as a holographic processing unit (HPU), which is a dedicated chip for operating in the environment.


The HoloLens Goggles
Unlike virtual reality goggles that prevent the user from moving around, HoloLens wearers can move about in their environment. HoloLens uses gestures, voice and eye movement to direct the action. (Image courtesy of Microsoft Corporation.)







A New Gaming Experience
Although it will be used for many applications, gaming with HoloLens is expected to become popular. (Image courtesy of Microsoft Corporation.)

Windows Mixed Reality

Windows 10 Mixed Reality combines real and generated images using Microsoft's HoloLens goggles (see mixed reality). Introduced in 2015 as Windows Holographic, Windows Mixed Reality superimposes 3D holograms into the surrounding environment.

HoloLens
The first implementation of the platform is the HoloLens goggles, which evolved from Microsoft's Kinect technology but with a 120 degree field of vision. The HoloLens has a built-in CPU and GPU, as well as a holographic processing unit (HPU). In 2019, HoloLens 2 debuted with a more comfortable design and an even wider viewing angle. A "hard hat" model is also available for hazardous job sites. See augmented reality, augmented virtuality and virtual reality.


The HoloLens Goggles
Unlike virtual reality goggles that prevent the user from moving around, HoloLens wearers can move about in their environment. HoloLens uses gestures, voice and eye movement to direct the action. (Image courtesy of Microsoft Corporation.)







A New Gaming Experience
Although it will be used for many applications, gaming with HoloLens is expected to become popular. (Image courtesy of Microsoft Corporation.)
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