Phylogeny of the holometabolous
insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology.
However, the allocation of larval-derived resources during metamorphosis in butterflies and other holometabolous
insects is affected by the expected intake of nutrients (including male donations) during the adult stage (Boggs 1981b, Boggs 1990, Karlsson and Wickman 1989, 1990).
One important event in the life cycle of holometabolous
phytophagous insects is choosing an oviposition site as this choice is essential for the survival and success of offspring (Segura et al.
The midge Belgica antarctica Jacobs, 1900 (Diptera; Chironomidae) is the southernmost, free-living, holometabolous
Calorimetric investigations on activity States and development of holometabolous
Third, considerable effort has been devoted toward understanding the processes that resulted in the endopterygote condition, from both an intrinsic, evolutionary developmental perspective that accounts for the origin of the larval and pupal stages, and from the regional or global environmental conditions during the late Paleozoic that would have selected for holometabolous
traits (Lameere, 1908; Hinton, 1963; Sehnal et al.
They are reported as well in stages of holometabolous
insects, such as eggs of the hymenopteran Oecophylla smaragdina (Hassan & Absar 1995), larvae of the dipteran Sarcophaga peregrina (Komano et a1.
Many organisms undergo ontogenetic changes in niche; the best-known examples are amphibians, holometabolous
insects, and many fishes (Werner and Gilliam 1984, Bergman and Greenberg 1994, Persson and Eklov 1995, Olson 1996).
Although we cannot rule out this possible bias, our data include genitalic structures with at least five different developmental origins (posterior imaginal discs in holometabolous
insects; the third abdominal segment in damselflies; posterior abdominal segments in the other hemimetabolous insects; the tarsal claw of the pedipalps of male spiders; and the abdomens of female spiders).
species with pupal diapause such as lepidopterans may accomplish this (McClay and Hughes, 1995), Tenodera sinensis have no such stage.
Brasema species are mostly primary or secondary larval/pupal ectoparasitoids of a wide variety of holometabolous
insects in concealed situations (Gibson 2011).
Transcriptional profiling of the endosymbiont Blochnumnia floridanus during different developmental stages of its holometabolous