Figures 3 and 4) Grade Content Standards K-4 Life science: Life cycles of organisms, metamorphosis and generation time of organisms with special focus on an holometabolous
However, the allocation of larval-derived resources during metamorphosis in butterflies and other holometabolous
insects is affected by the expected intake of nutrients (including male donations) during the adult stage (Boggs 1981b, Boggs 1990, Karlsson and Wickman 1989, 1990).
Accordingly, we have characterized variation in Hsp70 expression and its consequences at various stages in the Drosophila life cycle to elucidate the genetic and functional bases for coupling across the development of this holometabolous
Nijhout and Emlen approached the issue by working with holometabolous
Although most animals have complex life cycles (e.g., frogs, salamanders, fish, holometabolous
insects, and most marine organisms), the relative contribution of spatially separated life history phases to ultimate patterns of juvenile and adult distribution and abundance are seldom known.
The midge Belgica antarctica Jacobs, 1900 (Diptera; Chironomidae) is the southernmost, free-living, holometabolous
Adult feeding by holometabolous
insects: pollen and nectar as complementary nutrient sources for Rhingia campestris (Diptera: Syrphidae).
Most eurytomids are primary parasitoids typically attacking eggs, larvae, or pupae of holometabolous
insects (Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera [36, 37]), but this group also includes hyperparasitoids, and phytophagous eurytomines are known from at least 12 plant families (plant miners, gall inducers, and seed predators ; MW Gates, unpub.
Third, considerable effort has been devoted toward understanding the processes that resulted in the endopterygote condition, from both an intrinsic, evolutionary developmental perspective that accounts for the origin of the larval and pupal stages, and from the regional or global environmental conditions during the late Paleozoic that would have selected for holometabolous
traits (Lameere, 1908; Hinton, 1963; Sehnal et al., 1996; Truman and Riddiford, 1999; Nel et al., 2007).
They are reported as well in stages of holometabolous
insects, such as eggs of the hymenopteran Oecophylla smaragdina (Hassan & Absar 1995), larvae of the dipteran Sarcophaga peregrina (Komano et a1.1980), adults of the lepidopteran Spodoptera exigua (Pendland & Boucias 1986), pupae of the lepidopterans Antheraea pernyi(Qu et al.
Many organisms undergo ontogenetic changes in niche; the best-known examples are amphibians, holometabolous
insects, and many fishes (Werner and Gilliam 1984, Bergman and Greenberg 1994, Persson and Eklov 1995, Olson 1996).