home schooling


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home schooling,

the practice of teaching children in the home as an alternative to attending public or private elementary or high school. In most cases, one or both of the children's parents serve as the teachers. Like the charter schoolcharter school,
alternative type of American public school that, while paid for by taxes, is independent of the public-school system and relatively free from state and local regulations.
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 movement, home schooling usually arises from religious or other disenchantment with conventional public schools. Home schooling may also include full-time education at hiome by hired tutors.

Although home schooling had been practiced for generations in the United States, it was largely illegal during most of the 20th cent., but since the 1970s it has become one of the most rapidly growing educational trends in the nation. The contemporary movement initially arose mainly among Protestant conservatives who wished to provide their children with religious and moral instruction forbidden in public settings. By the mid-1980s there were roughly 50,000 home-schooled children in the United States, and by 2000 an estimated 1.5 million were being educated at home. The movement has largely been an American phenomenon. In Europe, home schooling is usually illegal or tightly restricted. The largest European home education community is in Great Britain, where by 2000 approximately 10,000 children were being home-schooled. At the beginning of the 21st cent. a majority of the parents engaged in home schooling continued to be motivated by religious beliefs. The home school movement has, however, always had other components, and it encompasses a broad cross-section of Americans, both religious (in a wide variety of faiths) and secular.

During the late 20th cent. the fastest-growing approach to home schooling was generally called "unschooling." In this system, which arose largely from educator John Holt's books How Children Fail (1964) and How Children Learn (1967), teaching responds to an individual child's talents and interests rather than adhering to a conventional curriculum. Whatever their manner of practice, proponents of home schooling cite figures showing that children who learn at home generally score higher on standardized tests than their traditionally schooled contemporaries. Some critics nonetheless question the real quality of such education, and also argue that it isolates children, depriving them of necessary social interactions and inhibiting collaborative and cooperative skills.

In the United States, home schooling has been legal in all 50 states since 1993, with regulatory laws and performance-tracking procedures differing widely from state to state. Some home school opponents feel that many state laws are too lenient, permitting teaching by parents who are inept or inattentive. The Home School Legal Defense Association, founded in 1983, provides information to parents and others on home schooling and its regulations; it also actively opposes the creation of nationalized standards for home schooling. Most states also have a number of local home schooling organizations. Publishers, responding what is now a mainstream movement, are producing a variety of materials geared toward home schoolers, and most colleges and universities now have developed criteria whereby they can admit the home-schooled.

Bibliography

See study by M. L. Stevens (2001).

References in periodicals archive ?
Following extensive consultation and many submissions from those affected, the Andrews Labor Government today unveiled the proposed changes to home schooling regulations in Victoria.
But first a brief explanation about home schooling, which has many different forms but which mainly grew out of parents' dissatisfaction with regular schooling, and is also a response to special needs (for example, people living in certain circumstances, like being in remote areas).
Along with steady growth in home schooling has come a spirited debate and lobbying war over how much oversight such education requires.
Uwe and Hannelore Romeike say home schooling is a Christian obligation and had requested asylum, as home schooling is illegal in Germany.
Despite four years of successful home schooling, the court ordered Brenda to enroll Amanda in the local public school for the 2009-2010 academic year--a decision which attracted national news media attention.
The committee says that councils could be given the right to refuse registration on safeguarding grounds, meaning parents could effectively be banned from home schooling their child if there are fears about the youngster's safety or the quality of their education.
The "hybridization" of home schooling has, along with other choice mechanisms and recent Establishment Clause interpretation, blurred the line between government and private educational spheres.
Because of the home schooling, Balou had to play at the high school inside his boundary, and began to practice with Thurston last week, Thurston Athletic Director Mike Michel said, as he began to look into the sophomore's eligibility.
Abu Dhabi: Home schooling has increased in popularity and admissions in the capital over the last few years, Gulf News has learned.
The Superior Court of Los Angeles County, ruled that state law does permit home schooling as a type of "private school," and overruled a February 28 opinion stating the opposite view.
Until now most people may have thought home schooling was an unalloyed right in California.
Anne Leyden has been home schooling her three sons -- now 8, 12 and 15 -- since they were old enough to start learning.