homogenization


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homogenization

(həmŏj'ənəzā`shən), process in which a mixture is made uniform throughout. Generally this procedure involves reducing the size of the particles of one component of the mixture and dispersing them evenly throughout the other component. Probably the most familiar example of a homogenized product is commercially sold milk. In milk that has not been homogenized the globules of fat range in diameter from approximately 1 to 20 micrometers (millionths of a meter), or 40 to 800 millionths of an inch. This allows them to separate out from the rest of the milk if it is allowed to stand. After homogenization the globules are reduced to a range of sizes clustering closely about 1 micrometer and remain stably dispersed through the milk. Homogenization is usually accomplished by pumping the milk through a small opening at high pressure. Milk that has been homogenized is better suited for shipment in paper containers but deteriorates more rapidly than unhomogenized milk.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Homogenization

 

in metallurgy, the creation of a homogeneous (uniform) structure in alloys by getting rid of concentrated microirregularities formed in alloys during crystallization, diffusion metal spraying, and so forth. For homogenization, alloys are subjected to heat treatment—so-called diffusion or homogenizing annealing—during which for the diffusion processes the chemical composition in microvolumes is made uniform and commensurable with the size of the grains of the alloy. The annealing temperature is usually 0.8 to 0.9 of the temperature at which the alloy melts down. The duration of such annealing varies from one hour to several dozen hours and depends on the type of alloy, its structure, and the degree to which inhomogeneity is liquated. Homogenization improves the technological plasticity of alloys, increases the stability of the mechanical properties, and decreases their directionality.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
A key step in preparing a miniemulsion is the homogenization step.
This impulse has clear implications for the capacity of sport to resist homogenization, despite the emergence of a global sporting economy.
There were no differences in ELISA-measured brevetoxin concentrations between shellfish homogenates and acetone extracts, indicating that a simple homogenization of shellfish meat is adequate for quantitative brevetoxin monitoring.
As the twentieth century comes to a close people dress more alike all over the world than they did at the end of the nineteenth century (Homogenization).
These included frequency of delivery (of milk to the processing plant); transport temperature; storage time (pasteurization to UHT process); UHT process; UHT temperature; homogenization time; homogenization pressure; homogenization temperature; circulation during separation; the addition of whey proteins; the addition of hydrogen peroxide; and storage temperature.
"Multiculturalism" is the gloss on hamburger/blue jeans homogenization, and "ethnic" styles just add a little superficial variety to the cultural supermarket.
Genetic erosion is also a problem among wildlife forms: Through population reductions or intentional homogenization, many species have lost much of their internal diversity, and hence their ability to survive collectively.
The company's planetary roller extruder is said to be characterized by a very gentle plastification, good homogenization and dispersion, as well as a low specific energy demand.
Sampling efficiency is associated with the variation of the results generated and with the procedures adopted (Mallmann et al., 2013, 2014), which involve sample collection, equipment for homogenization and preparation of the working sample (Whitaker et al., 2011).
Sometimes an intermediate milling step is included prior to final homogenization. By these means the insoluble API is uniformly dispersed throughout the liquid phase with inactive ingredients during homogenization.
The scientists examined the effects of homogenization at 1100 psi and the stabilization of cellulose gum and pectin at levels of 0%, 0.2% and 0.4%.