These findings indicate that primary spermatocytes in the hinny could enter into synapsis but because of the failure of homologous chromosomes
to pair (Henry et al., 1995; Zhao et al., 2005), they could not complete meiosis and therefore could not advance beyond the spermatocyte phase.
Two alleles at one biallelic marker can divide the chromosomes in a population into two categories; these two alleles would result in three genotypes at the specified marker on homologous chromosomes
and, thus, could be used to divide the individuals in a population into three categories.
The tension necessary to proceed through the checkpoint is created by the crossovers between homologous chromosomes
, which are pulled in opposite directions.
Each homologous chromosome
contains the same set of genes in the same locations along the chromosome, though they may appear in differing alleles, which can affect the passing of genetic traits.
In these mutant cases, we assume that the force between sister chromatids or between homologous chromosomes
does not decrease, whereas this force is expected to decrease when a normal cell goes into anaphase of mitosis or meiosis I.
the traits localized in a chromosome can go independently of each other into one or the other daughter cell which would point to an exchange of parts between homologous chromosomes
." [Boveri 1904, translated by Stern (1950)].
The ideogram was drawing on the basis of the averaged length of each homologous chromosome
pair (p) and their centromeric position.
Despite our initial hypothesis, we show that bindin is located on two sets of homologous chromosomes
and that neither of these is the heteromorphic pair.
In pre-reductional meiosis, which is the more common type, homologous chromosomes
segregate in the first round of meiosis, and sister chromatids segregate in the second.
are chromosomes with genes that control the same function and that are at the same location (or locus).
During anaphase 1, homologous chromosomes
move in opposite directions along the spindle.
Thus, the expression of each trait is controlled by two genetic messages; two homologous chromosomes
control one gene from each trait.