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Numerous abiotic factors including salinity, temperature, oxygen level, nutrient type and availability, level of antibiotic and its spectrum of activity, as well as the presence of signaling molecules such as homoserine lactones are known to cause waxing or waning of particular bacterial species numbers.
Classes of compounds detected by the NMR method included amino acids (alanine, asparagine, arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamate, glutamine, homoserine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, sarcosine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, taurine, valine); alcohols (methanol and glycerol); ketones and fatty acid by-products (acetoacetate, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, pyruvate, isobutyrate); sugar (glucose); other small molecule intermediates (o-phosphocholine, choline, n,n-dimethylglycine, citrate, creatine, lactate, methylhistidine, succinate, myo-inositol, dimethylamine, methylsuccinate, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate).
Alanine (Ala), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp), asparagine (Asn), glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gin), serine (Ser) and theanine, major amino acids in the tea leaves, were measured by HPLC as described above using homoserine as an internal standard (Goto et al.
AHLs are highly conserved molecules having the common homoserine lactone moiety but differ in the length and structure of the acyl side chain (3).
Babu, "Direct lactonization of a-amino [gamma], [delta]-unsaturated carboxylic acid esters via olefin activation: stereo- and regioselective production of homoserine lactone scaffolds having contiguous stereocenters," Tetrahedron, vol.
Quenching quorum-sensing-dependent bacterial infection by an N-acyl homoserine lactonase.
Lysine was the first amino acid that was produced with the help of mutant strains that require homoserine for hyper production in industry (Shah and Khan, 2008).
e peptide molecules which were produced by Gram positive bacteria and acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) which were produced by Gram negative bacteria [15].
The Pseudomonas autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone induces cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 production in human lung fibroblasts: Implications for inflammation.
To date, the best known communication between bacteria occurs via the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL): The enzyme Luxl produces signals that are recognised by the LuxR receptor, at which point the bacteria develop certain properties and modulate their behaviour towards one another.
AHLs contain a common homoserine lactone ring, differing in their carbon lenght (4 to 18 carbons), degree of saturation, and the presence of C3 acyl chain modifications.
Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium can detect acyl homoserine lactone production by Yersinia enterocolitica in mice," Journal of Bacteriology, vol.