hookworm


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hookworm,

any of a number of bloodsucking nematodes in the phylum NematodaNematoda
, phylum consisting of about 12,000 known species, and many more predicted species, of worms (commonly known as roundworms or threadworms). Nematodes live in the soil and other terrestrial habitats as well as in freshwater and marine environments; some live on the deep
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, order Strongiloidae that live as parasites in humans and other mammals and attach themselves to the host's intestines by means of hooks. Hookworm infection in humans is caused by infestation with Ancylostoma duodenale (the European species) or with Necator americanus (the American species). It is found in tropical and subtropical climates, especially where the inhabitants do not wear shoes or stockings and where the soil is contaminated by human excrement. The larva of the hookworm, living in moist soil or mud, easily penetrates the exposed skin, usually the sole of the foot, and is then carried by the blood to the lungs. An early sign of hookworm infestation is a dermatitis at the site of entry, known as ground itch. As the larva passes through the lungs, it causes episodes of coughing with bloody sputum. Raised with the mucus into the mouth, the larva is then swallowed. It may also be swallowed with polluted drinking water or with unclean vegetables eaten raw. By means of its hooks the larva attaches itself to the upper portion of the small intestine, where it nourishes itself on the blood of its host. The larva matures and the female produces eggs, as many as 30,000 per day, that are passed from the intestine with the feces, usually to contaminate the soil still further. The drain on the blood of the host results in anemia. This, together with the resulting abdominal pain and diarrhea, causes general debility. Hookworm is treated with drugs, notably tetrachloroethylene, that loosen and destroy the parasite, as well as with specifics for the anemia and abdominal symptoms. Incidence of this disease, which was once seriously prevalent, has been much reduced by improved sanitation and the wearing of shoes.
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hookworm

[′hu̇k‚wərm]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for parasitic roundworms composing the family Ancylostomidae.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hookworm

any parasitic blood-sucking nematode worm of the family Ancylostomatidae, esp Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, both of which cause disease. They have hooked mouthparts and enter their hosts by boring through the skin
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
While largely absent in the developed world, hookworm still infects as many as 500-740 million people worldwide.
Although a drug exists to treat infection, hookworm infection is so common in parts of the world that it is thought to have a negative effect on economies.
Despite their small size (adults are just 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch long), hookworms are highly destructive parasites.
Carroll SM, Grove D (1984b) Parasitological, hematologic, and immunologic responses in acute and chronic infections in dogs with Ancylostoma ceylanicum: A model of human hookworm infection.
However, Sex preponderance was not seen with hookworm infection.
Soil-transmitted helminths were comparatively less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797), 3.8% (30/797), and 0.13% (1/797) for Ascaris lum bricoides, Hookworm species, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively.
Inadequate sanitation and the deposition of human faeces on soil propagate the lifecycle of hookworm [18, 20].
trichiura and hookworm; this differs from the situation in older children and adults, where hookworm infestation is second highest.
Three species of nematodes, namely: Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichura, were responsible for the STHI in the area (Table 1).
The parasites found were: Ascaris lumbricoides (15.7%), hookworm (11.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (9.7%), Trichuris trichiura (4.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.1%), Taenia solium (0.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.6%), Entamoeba coli (9.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (5%), Endolimax nana (2.1%), Giardia lamblia (1.8%) and Entamoeba histolytica (1.1%).
And finally, in the midst of the eugenics movement, the hookworm campaign arose to complicate the argument about degenerate whites.